Clinical Quality Language Release 1 (Development Build)

Clinical Quality Language Specification - Local Development build (v1.5.0). See the Directory of published versions

Clinical Decision Support Work GroupMaturity Level: NStandards Status: Normative Ballot

Clinical Quality Language Grammar

This page contains the Antlr 4.0 grammar for Clinical Quality Language.

Raw CQL grammar

grammar cql;

/*
 * Clinical Quality Language Grammar Specification
 * Version 1.5 - Normative
 */

import fhirpath;

/*
 * Parser Rules
 */

library
    :
    libraryDefinition?
    usingDefinition*
    includeDefinition*
    codesystemDefinition*
    valuesetDefinition*
    codeDefinition*
    conceptDefinition*
    parameterDefinition*
    statement*
    EOF
    ;

/*
 * Definitions
 */

libraryDefinition
    : 'library' qualifiedIdentifier ('version' versionSpecifier)?
    ;

usingDefinition
    : 'using' modelIdentifier ('version' versionSpecifier)?
    ;

includeDefinition
    : 'include' qualifiedIdentifier ('version' versionSpecifier)? ('called' localIdentifier)?
    ;

localIdentifier
    : identifier
    ;

accessModifier
    : 'public'
    | 'private'
    ;

parameterDefinition
    : accessModifier? 'parameter' identifier (typeSpecifier)? ('default' expression)?
    ;

codesystemDefinition
    : accessModifier? 'codesystem' identifier ':' codesystemId ('version' versionSpecifier)?
    ;

valuesetDefinition
    : accessModifier? 'valueset' identifier ':' valuesetId ('version' versionSpecifier)? codesystems?
    ;

codesystems
    : 'codesystems' '{' codesystemIdentifier (',' codesystemIdentifier)* '}'
    ;

codesystemIdentifier
    : (libraryIdentifier '.')? identifier
    ;

libraryIdentifier
    : identifier
    ;

codeDefinition
    : accessModifier? 'code' identifier ':' codeId 'from' codesystemIdentifier displayClause?
    ;

conceptDefinition
    : accessModifier? 'concept' identifier ':' '{' codeIdentifier (',' codeIdentifier)* '}' displayClause?
    ;

codeIdentifier
    : (libraryIdentifier '.')? identifier
    ;

codesystemId
    : STRING
    ;

valuesetId
    : STRING
    ;

versionSpecifier
    : STRING
    ;

codeId
    : STRING
    ;

/*
 * Type Specifiers
 */

typeSpecifier
    : namedTypeSpecifier
    | listTypeSpecifier
    | intervalTypeSpecifier
    | tupleTypeSpecifier
    | choiceTypeSpecifier
    ;

namedTypeSpecifier
    : (qualifier '.')* referentialOrTypeNameIdentifier
    ;

modelIdentifier
    : identifier
    ;

listTypeSpecifier
    : 'List' '<' typeSpecifier '>'
    ;

intervalTypeSpecifier
    : 'Interval' '<' typeSpecifier '>'
    ;

tupleTypeSpecifier
    : 'Tuple' '{' tupleElementDefinition (',' tupleElementDefinition)* '}'
    ;

tupleElementDefinition
    : referentialIdentifier typeSpecifier
    ;

choiceTypeSpecifier
    : 'Choice' '<' typeSpecifier (',' typeSpecifier)* '>'
    ;

/*
 * Statements
 */

statement
    : expressionDefinition
    | contextDefinition
    | functionDefinition
    ;

expressionDefinition
    : 'define' accessModifier? identifier ':' expression
    ;

contextDefinition
    : 'context' (modelIdentifier '.')? identifier
    ;

functionDefinition
    : 'define' accessModifier? 'fluent'? 'function' identifierOrFunctionIdentifier '(' (operandDefinition (',' operandDefinition)*)? ')'
        ('returns' typeSpecifier)?
        ':' (functionBody | 'external')
    ;

operandDefinition
    : referentialIdentifier typeSpecifier
    ;

functionBody
    : expression
    ;

/*
 * Expressions
 */

querySource
    : retrieve
    | qualifiedIdentifierExpression
    | '(' expression ')'
    ;

aliasedQuerySource
    : querySource alias
    ;

alias
    : identifier
    ;

queryInclusionClause
    : withClause
    | withoutClause
    ;

withClause
    : 'with' aliasedQuerySource 'such that' expression
    ;

withoutClause
    : 'without' aliasedQuerySource 'such that' expression
    ;

retrieve
    : '[' (contextIdentifier '->')? namedTypeSpecifier (':' (codePath codeComparator)? terminology)? ']'
    ;

contextIdentifier
    : qualifiedIdentifierExpression
    ;

codePath
    : simplePath
    ;

codeComparator
    : 'in'
    | '='
    | '~'
    ;

terminology
    : qualifiedIdentifierExpression
    | expression
    ;

qualifier
    : identifier
    ;

query
    : sourceClause letClause? queryInclusionClause* whereClause? (aggregateClause | returnClause)? sortClause?
    ;

sourceClause
    : 'from'? aliasedQuerySource (',' aliasedQuerySource)*
    ;

letClause
    : 'let' letClauseItem (',' letClauseItem)*
    ;

letClauseItem
    : identifier ':' expression
    ;

whereClause
    : 'where' expression
    ;

returnClause
    : 'return' ('all' | 'distinct')? expression
    ;

aggregateClause
    : 'aggregate' ('all' | 'distinct')? identifier startingClause? ':' expression
    ;

startingClause
    : 'starting' (simpleLiteral | quantity | ('(' expression ')'))
    ;

sortClause
    : 'sort' ( sortDirection | ('by' sortByItem (',' sortByItem)*) )
    ;

sortDirection
    : 'asc' | 'ascending'
    | 'desc' | 'descending'
    ;

sortByItem
    : expressionTerm sortDirection?
    ;

qualifiedIdentifier
    : (qualifier '.')* identifier
    ;

qualifiedIdentifierExpression
    : (qualifierExpression '.')* referentialIdentifier
    ;

qualifierExpression
    : referentialIdentifier
    ;

simplePath
    : referentialIdentifier                            #simplePathReferentialIdentifier
    | simplePath '.' referentialIdentifier             #simplePathQualifiedIdentifier
    | simplePath '[' simpleLiteral ']'                 #simplePathIndexer
    ;

simpleLiteral
    : STRING                                           #simpleStringLiteral
    | NUMBER                                           #simpleNumberLiteral
    ;

expression
    : expressionTerm                                                                                #termExpression
    | retrieve                                                                                      #retrieveExpression
    | query                                                                                         #queryExpression
    | expression 'is' 'not'? ('null' | 'true' | 'false')                                            #booleanExpression
    | expression ('is' | 'as') typeSpecifier                                                        #typeExpression
    | 'cast' expression 'as' typeSpecifier                                                          #castExpression
    | 'not' expression                                                                              #notExpression
    | 'exists' expression                                                                           #existenceExpression
    | expression 'properly'? 'between' expressionTerm 'and' expressionTerm                          #betweenExpression
    | ('duration' 'in')? pluralDateTimePrecision 'between' expressionTerm 'and' expressionTerm      #durationBetweenExpression
    | 'difference' 'in' pluralDateTimePrecision 'between' expressionTerm 'and' expressionTerm       #differenceBetweenExpression
    | expression ('<=' | '<' | '>' | '>=') expression                                               #inequalityExpression
    | expression intervalOperatorPhrase expression                                                  #timingExpression
    | expression ('=' | '!=' | '~' | '!~') expression                                               #equalityExpression
    | expression ('in' | 'contains') dateTimePrecisionSpecifier? expression                         #membershipExpression
    | expression 'and' expression                                                                   #andExpression
    | expression ('or' | 'xor') expression                                                          #orExpression
    | expression 'implies' expression                                                               #impliesExpression
    | expression ('|' | 'union' | 'intersect' | 'except') expression                                #inFixSetExpression
    ;

dateTimePrecision
    : 'year' | 'month' | 'week' | 'day' | 'hour' | 'minute' | 'second' | 'millisecond'
    ;

dateTimeComponent
    : dateTimePrecision
    | 'date'
    | 'time'
    | 'timezoneoffset'
    ;

pluralDateTimePrecision
    : 'years' | 'months' | 'weeks' | 'days' | 'hours' | 'minutes' | 'seconds' | 'milliseconds'
    ;

expressionTerm
    : term                                                                          #termExpressionTerm
    | expressionTerm '.' qualifiedInvocation                                        #invocationExpressionTerm
    | expressionTerm '[' expression ']'                                             #indexedExpressionTerm
    | 'convert' expression 'to' (typeSpecifier | unit)                              #conversionExpressionTerm
    | ('+' | '-') expressionTerm                                                    #polarityExpressionTerm
    | ('start' | 'end') 'of' expressionTerm                                         #timeBoundaryExpressionTerm
    | dateTimeComponent 'from' expressionTerm                                       #timeUnitExpressionTerm
    | 'duration' 'in' pluralDateTimePrecision 'of' expressionTerm                   #durationExpressionTerm
    | 'difference' 'in' pluralDateTimePrecision 'of' expressionTerm                 #differenceExpressionTerm
    | 'width' 'of' expressionTerm                                                   #widthExpressionTerm
    | 'successor' 'of' expressionTerm                                               #successorExpressionTerm
    | 'predecessor' 'of' expressionTerm                                             #predecessorExpressionTerm
    | 'singleton' 'from' expressionTerm                                             #elementExtractorExpressionTerm
    | 'point' 'from' expressionTerm                                                 #pointExtractorExpressionTerm
    | ('minimum' | 'maximum') namedTypeSpecifier                                    #typeExtentExpressionTerm
    | expressionTerm '^' expressionTerm                                             #powerExpressionTerm
    | expressionTerm ('*' | '/' | 'div' | 'mod') expressionTerm                     #multiplicationExpressionTerm
    | expressionTerm ('+' | '-' | '&') expressionTerm                               #additionExpressionTerm
    | 'if' expression 'then' expression 'else' expression                           #ifThenElseExpressionTerm
    | 'case' expression? caseExpressionItem+ 'else' expression 'end'                #caseExpressionTerm
    | ('distinct' | 'flatten') expression                                           #aggregateExpressionTerm
    | ('expand' | 'collapse') expression ('per' (dateTimePrecision | expression))?  #setAggregateExpressionTerm
    ;

caseExpressionItem
    : 'when' expression 'then' expression
    ;

dateTimePrecisionSpecifier
    : dateTimePrecision 'of'
    ;

relativeQualifier
    : 'or before'
    | 'or after'
    ;

offsetRelativeQualifier
    : 'or more'
    | 'or less'
    ;

exclusiveRelativeQualifier
    : 'less than'
    | 'more than'
    ;

quantityOffset
    : (quantity offsetRelativeQualifier?)
    | (exclusiveRelativeQualifier quantity)
    ;

temporalRelationship
    : ('on or'? ('before' | 'after'))
    | (('before' | 'after') 'or on'?)
    ;

intervalOperatorPhrase
    : ('starts' | 'ends' | 'occurs')? 'same' dateTimePrecision? (relativeQualifier | 'as') ('start' | 'end')?               #concurrentWithIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | 'properly'? 'includes' dateTimePrecisionSpecifier? ('start' | 'end')?                                                 #includesIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | ('starts' | 'ends' | 'occurs')? 'properly'? ('during' | 'included in') dateTimePrecisionSpecifier?                    #includedInIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | ('starts' | 'ends' | 'occurs')? quantityOffset? temporalRelationship dateTimePrecisionSpecifier? ('start' | 'end')?   #beforeOrAfterIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | ('starts' | 'ends' | 'occurs')? 'properly'? 'within' quantity 'of' ('start' | 'end')?                                 #withinIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | 'meets' ('before' | 'after')? dateTimePrecisionSpecifier?                                                             #meetsIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | 'overlaps' ('before' | 'after')? dateTimePrecisionSpecifier?                                                          #overlapsIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | 'starts' dateTimePrecisionSpecifier?                                                                                  #startsIntervalOperatorPhrase
    | 'ends' dateTimePrecisionSpecifier?                                                                                    #endsIntervalOperatorPhrase
    ;

term
    : invocation            #invocationTerm
    | literal               #literalTerm
    | externalConstant      #externalConstantTerm
    | intervalSelector      #intervalSelectorTerm
    | tupleSelector         #tupleSelectorTerm
    | instanceSelector      #instanceSelectorTerm
    | listSelector          #listSelectorTerm
    | codeSelector          #codeSelectorTerm
    | conceptSelector       #conceptSelectorTerm
    | '(' expression ')'    #parenthesizedTerm
    ;

qualifiedInvocation // Terms that can be used after the function/member invocation '.'
    : referentialIdentifier             #qualifiedMemberInvocation
    | qualifiedFunction                 #qualifiedFunctionInvocation
    ;

qualifiedFunction
    : identifierOrFunctionIdentifier '(' paramList? ')'
    ;

invocation
    : referentialIdentifier             #memberInvocation
    | function                          #functionInvocation
    | '$this'                           #thisInvocation
    | '$index'                          #indexInvocation
    | '$total'                          #totalInvocation
    ;

function
    : referentialIdentifier '(' paramList? ')'
    ;

ratio
    : quantity ':' quantity
    ;

literal
    : ('true' | 'false')                                    #booleanLiteral
    | 'null'                                                #nullLiteral
    | STRING                                                #stringLiteral
    | NUMBER                                                #numberLiteral
    | LONGNUMBER                                            #longNumberLiteral
    | DATETIME                                              #dateTimeLiteral
    | DATE                                                  #dateLiteral
    | TIME                                                  #timeLiteral
    | quantity                                              #quantityLiteral
    | ratio                                                 #ratioLiteral
    ;

intervalSelector
    : // TODO: Consider this as an alternative syntax for intervals... (would need to be moved up to expression to make it work)
    //expression ( '..' | '*.' | '.*' | '**' ) expression;
    'Interval' ('['|'(') expression ',' expression (']'|')')
    ;

tupleSelector
    : 'Tuple'? '{' (':' | (tupleElementSelector (',' tupleElementSelector)*)) '}'
    ;

tupleElementSelector
    : referentialIdentifier ':' expression
    ;

instanceSelector
    : namedTypeSpecifier '{' (':' | (instanceElementSelector (',' instanceElementSelector)*)) '}'
    ;

instanceElementSelector
    : referentialIdentifier ':' expression
    ;

listSelector
    : ('List' ('<' typeSpecifier '>')?)? '{' (expression (',' expression)*)? '}'
    ;

displayClause
    : 'display' STRING
    ;

codeSelector
    : 'Code' STRING 'from' codesystemIdentifier displayClause?
    ;

conceptSelector
    : 'Concept' '{' codeSelector (',' codeSelector)* '}' displayClause?
    ;

keyword
    : 'after'
    | 'aggregate'
    | 'all'
    | 'and'
    | 'as'
    | 'asc'
    | 'ascending'
    | 'before'
    | 'between'
    | 'by'
    | 'called'
    | 'case'
    | 'cast'
    | 'code'
    | 'Code'
    | 'codesystem'
    | 'codesystems'
    | 'collapse'
    | 'concept'
    | 'Concept'
    | 'contains'
    | 'context'
    | 'convert'
    | 'date'
    | 'day'
    | 'days'
    | 'default'
    | 'define'
    | 'desc'
    | 'descending'
    | 'difference'
    | 'display'
    | 'distinct'
    | 'div'
    | 'duration'
    | 'during'
    | 'else'
    | 'end'
    | 'ends'
    | 'except'
    | 'exists'
    | 'expand'
    | 'false'
    | 'flatten'
    | 'fluent'
    | 'from'
    | 'function'
    | 'hour'
    | 'hours'
    | 'if'
    | 'implies'
    | 'in'
    | 'include'
    | 'includes'
    | 'included in'
    | 'intersect'
    | 'Interval'
    | 'is'
    | 'let'
    | 'library'
    | 'List'
    | 'maximum'
    | 'meets'
    | 'millisecond'
    | 'milliseconds'
    | 'minimum'
    | 'minute'
    | 'minutes'
    | 'mod'
    | 'month'
    | 'months'
    | 'not'
    | 'null'
    | 'occurs'
    | 'of'
    | 'on or'
    | 'or'
    | 'or after'
    | 'or before'
    | 'or less'
    | 'or more'
    | 'or on'
    | 'overlaps'
    | 'parameter'
    | 'per'
    | 'point'
    | 'predecessor'
    | 'private'
    | 'properly'
    | 'public'
    | 'return'
    | 'same'
    | 'second'
    | 'seconds'
    | 'singleton'
    | 'start'
    | 'starting'
    | 'starts'
    | 'sort'
    | 'successor'
    | 'such that'
    | 'then'
    | 'time'
    | 'timezoneoffset'
    | 'to'
    | 'true'
    | 'Tuple'
    | 'union'
    | 'using'
    | 'valueset'
    | 'version'
    | 'week'
    | 'weeks'
    | 'where'
    | 'when'
    | 'width'
    | 'with'
    | 'within'
    | 'without'
    | 'xor'
    | 'year'
    | 'years'
    ;

// NOTE: Not used, this is the set of reserved words that may not appear as identifiers in ambiguous contexts
reservedWord
    : 'aggregate'
    | 'all'
    | 'and'
    | 'as'
    | 'after'
    | 'before'
    | 'between'
    | 'case'
    | 'cast'
    | 'Code'
    | 'collapse'
    | 'Concept'
    | 'convert'
    | 'day'
    | 'days'
    | 'difference'
    | 'distinct'
    | 'duration'
    | 'during'
    | 'else'
    | 'exists'
    | 'expand'
    | 'false'
    | 'flatten'
    | 'from'
    | 'if'
    | 'in'
    | 'included in'
    | 'is'
    | 'hour'
    | 'hours'
    | 'Interval'
    | 'let'
    | 'List'
    | 'maximum'
    | 'millisecond'
    | 'milliseconds'
    | 'minimum'
    | 'minute'
    | 'minutes'
    | 'month'
    | 'months'
    | 'not'
    | 'null'
    | 'occurs'
    | 'of'
    | 'on or'
    | 'or'
    | 'or on'
    | 'per'
    | 'point'
    | 'properly'
    | 'return'
    | 'same'
    | 'second'
    | 'seconds'
    | 'singleton'
    | 'sort'
    | 'such that'
    | 'then'
    | 'to'
    | 'true'
    | 'Tuple'
    | 'week'
    | 'weeks'
    | 'when'
    | 'with'
    | 'within'
    | 'without'
    | 'year'
    | 'years'
    ;

// Keyword identifiers are keywords that may be used as identifiers in a referential context
// Effectively, keyword except reservedWord
keywordIdentifier
    : 'asc'
    | 'ascending'
    | 'by'
    | 'called'
    | 'code'
    | 'codesystem'
    | 'codesystems'
    | 'concept'
    | 'contains'
    | 'context'
    | 'date'
    | 'default'
    | 'define'
    | 'desc'
    | 'descending'
    | 'display'
    | 'div'
    | 'end'
    | 'ends'
    | 'except'
    | 'fluent'
    | 'function'
    | 'implies'
    | 'include'
    | 'includes'
    | 'intersect'
    | 'library'
    | 'meets'
    | 'mod'
    | 'or after'
    | 'or before'
    | 'or less'
    | 'or more'
    | 'overlaps'
    | 'parameter'
    | 'predecessor'
    | 'private'
    | 'public'
    | 'start'
    | 'starting'
    | 'starts'
    | 'successor'
    | 'time'
    | 'timezoneoffset'
    | 'union'
    | 'using'
    | 'valueset'
    | 'version'
    | 'where'
    | 'width'
    | 'xor'
    ;

// Obsolete identifiers are keywords that could be used as identifiers in CQL 1.3
// NOTE: Not currently used, this is the set of keywords that were defined as allowed identifiers as part of 1.3
// NOTE: Several keywords were commented out in this list (notably exists) because of an issue with the ANTLR tooling.
// In 4.5, having these keywords as identifiers results in unacceptable parsing performance. In 4.6+, having them as
// identifiers resulted in incorrect parsing. See Github issue [#343](https://github.com/cqframework/clinical_quality_language/issues/343) for more detail
// This should no longer be an issue with 1.4 due to the introduction of reserved words
obsoleteIdentifier
    : 'all'
    | 'Code'
    | 'code'
    | 'Concept'
    | 'concept'
    | 'contains'
    | 'date'
    | 'display'
    | 'distinct'
    | 'end'
    | 'exists'
    | 'not'
    | 'start'
    | 'time'
    | 'timezoneoffset'
    | 'version'
    | 'where'
    ;

// Function identifiers are keywords that may be used as identifiers for functions
functionIdentifier
    : 'after'
    | 'aggregate'
    | 'all'
    | 'and'
    | 'as'
    | 'asc'
    | 'ascending'
    | 'before'
    | 'between'
    | 'by'
    | 'called'
    | 'case'
    | 'cast'
    | 'code'
    | 'Code'
    | 'codesystem'
    | 'codesystems'
    | 'collapse'
    | 'concept'
    | 'Concept'
    | 'contains'
    | 'context'
    | 'convert'
    | 'date'
    | 'day'
    | 'days'
    | 'default'
    | 'define'
    | 'desc'
    | 'descending'
    | 'difference'
    | 'display'
    | 'distinct'
    | 'div'
    | 'duration'
    | 'during'
    | 'else'
    | 'end'
    | 'ends'
    | 'except'
    | 'exists'
    | 'expand'
    | 'false'
    | 'flatten'
    | 'fluent'
    | 'from'
    | 'function'
    | 'hour'
    | 'hours'
    | 'if'
    | 'implies'
    | 'in'
    | 'include'
    | 'includes'
    | 'included in'
    | 'intersect'
    | 'Interval'
    | 'is'
    | 'let'
    | 'library'
    | 'List'
    | 'maximum'
    | 'meets'
    | 'millisecond'
    | 'milliseconds'
    | 'minimum'
    | 'minute'
    | 'minutes'
    | 'mod'
    | 'month'
    | 'months'
    | 'not'
    | 'null'
    | 'occurs'
    | 'of'
    | 'or'
    | 'or after'
    | 'or before'
    | 'or less'
    | 'or more'
    | 'overlaps'
    | 'parameter'
    | 'per'
    | 'point'
    | 'predecessor'
    | 'private'
    | 'properly'
    | 'public'
    | 'return'
    | 'same'
    | 'singleton'
    | 'second'
    | 'seconds'
    | 'start'
    | 'starting'
    | 'starts'
    | 'sort'
    | 'successor'
    | 'such that'
    | 'then'
    | 'time'
    | 'timezoneoffset'
    | 'to'
    | 'true'
    | 'Tuple'
    | 'union'
    | 'using'
    | 'valueset'
    | 'version'
    | 'week'
    | 'weeks'
    | 'where'
    | 'when'
    | 'width'
    | 'with'
    | 'within'
    | 'without'
    | 'xor'
    | 'year'
    | 'years'
    ;

// Reserved words that are also type names
typeNameIdentifier
    : 'Code'
    | 'Concept'
    | 'date'
    | 'time'
    ;

referentialIdentifier
    : identifier
    | keywordIdentifier
    ;

referentialOrTypeNameIdentifier
    : referentialIdentifier
    | typeNameIdentifier
    ;

identifierOrFunctionIdentifier
    : identifier
    | functionIdentifier
    ;

identifier
    : IDENTIFIER
    | DELIMITEDIDENTIFIER
    | QUOTEDIDENTIFIER
    ;

QUOTEDIDENTIFIER
    : '"' (ESC | .)*? '"'
    ;

DATETIME
    : '@' DATEFORMAT 'T' TIMEFORMAT? TIMEZONEOFFSETFORMAT?
    ;

LONGNUMBER
    : [0-9]+'L'
    ;

fragment ESC
    : '\\' ([`'"\\/fnrt] | UNICODE)    // allow \`, \', \", \\, \/, \f, etc. and \uXXX
    ;


NOTE: CQL extends from the FHIRPath grammar, and so uses the core production rules defined there. The FHIRPath grammar is included here for reference only, the FHIRPath grammar below is part of the FHIRPath specification. —-

Raw FHIRPath grammar

grammar fhirpath;

// Grammar rules
// [FHIRPath](http://hl7.org/fhirpath/N1) Normative Release

//prog: line (line)*;
//line: ID ( '(' expr ')') ':' expr '\r'? '\n';

expression
        : term                                                      #termExpression
        | expression '.' invocation                                 #invocationExpression
        | expression '[' expression ']'                             #indexerExpression
        | ('+' | '-') expression                                    #polarityExpression
        | expression ('*' | '/' | 'div' | 'mod') expression         #multiplicativeExpression
        | expression ('+' | '-' | '&') expression                   #additiveExpression
        | expression ('is' | 'as') typeSpecifier                    #typeExpression
        | expression '|' expression                                 #unionExpression
        | expression ('<=' | '<' | '>' | '>=') expression           #inequalityExpression
        | expression ('=' | '~' | '!=' | '!~') expression           #equalityExpression
        | expression ('in' | 'contains') expression                 #membershipExpression
        | expression 'and' expression                               #andExpression
        | expression ('or' | 'xor') expression                      #orExpression
        | expression 'implies' expression                           #impliesExpression
        //| (IDENTIFIER)? '=>' expression                             #lambdaExpression
        ;

term
        : invocation                                            #invocationTerm
        | literal                                               #literalTerm
        | externalConstant                                      #externalConstantTerm
        | '(' expression ')'                                    #parenthesizedTerm
        ;

literal
        : '{' '}'                                               #nullLiteral
        | ('true' | 'false')                                    #booleanLiteral
        | STRING                                                #stringLiteral
        | NUMBER                                                #numberLiteral
        | DATE                                                  #dateLiteral
        | DATETIME                                              #dateTimeLiteral
        | TIME                                                  #timeLiteral
        | quantity                                              #quantityLiteral
        ;

externalConstant
        : '%' ( identifier | STRING )
        ;

invocation                          // Terms that can be used after the function/member invocation '.'
        : identifier                                            #memberInvocation
        | function                                              #functionInvocation
        | '$this'                                               #thisInvocation
        | '$index'                                              #indexInvocation
        | '$total'                                              #totalInvocation
        ;

function
        : identifier '(' paramList? ')'
        ;

paramList
        : expression (',' expression)*
        ;

quantity
        : NUMBER unit?
        ;

unit
        : dateTimePrecision
        | pluralDateTimePrecision
        | STRING // UCUM syntax for units of measure
        ;

dateTimePrecision
        : 'year' | 'month' | 'week' | 'day' | 'hour' | 'minute' | 'second' | 'millisecond'
        ;

pluralDateTimePrecision
        : 'years' | 'months' | 'weeks' | 'days' | 'hours' | 'minutes' | 'seconds' | 'milliseconds'
        ;

typeSpecifier
        : qualifiedIdentifier
        ;

qualifiedIdentifier
        : identifier ('.' identifier)*
        ;

identifier
        : IDENTIFIER
        | DELIMITEDIDENTIFIER
        | 'as'
        | 'contains'
        | 'in'
        | 'is'
        ;


/****************************************************************
    Lexical rules
*****************************************************************/

/*
NOTE: The goal of these rules in the grammar is to provide a date
token to the parser. As such it is not attempting to validate that
the date is a correct date, that task is for the parser or interpreter.
*/

DATE
        : '@' DATEFORMAT
        ;

DATETIME
        : '@' DATEFORMAT 'T' (TIMEFORMAT TIMEZONEOFFSETFORMAT?)?
        ;

TIME
        : '@' 'T' TIMEFORMAT
        ;

fragment DATEFORMAT
        : [0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9] ('-'[0-9][0-9] ('-'[0-9][0-9])?)?
        ;

fragment TIMEFORMAT
        : [0-9][0-9] (':'[0-9][0-9] (':'[0-9][0-9] ('.'[0-9]+)?)?)?
        ;

fragment TIMEZONEOFFSETFORMAT
        : ('Z' | ('+' | '-') [0-9][0-9]':'[0-9][0-9])
        ;

IDENTIFIER
        : ([A-Za-z] | '_')([A-Za-z0-9] | '_')*            // Added _ to support CQL (FHIR could constrain it out)
        ;

DELIMITEDIDENTIFIER
        : '`' (ESC | .)*? '`'
        ;

STRING
        : '\'' (ESC | .)*? '\''
        ;

// Also allows leading zeroes now (just like CQL and XSD)
NUMBER
        : [0-9]+('.' [0-9]+)?
        ;

// Pipe whitespace to the HIDDEN channel to support retrieving source text through the parser.
WS
        : [ \r\n\t]+ -> channel(HIDDEN)
        ;

COMMENT
        : '/*' .*? '*/' -> channel(HIDDEN)
        ;

LINE_COMMENT
        : '//' ~[\r\n]* -> channel(HIDDEN)
        ;

fragment ESC
        : '\\' ([`'\\/fnrt] | UNICODE)    // allow \`, \', \\, \/, \f, etc. and \uXXX
        ;

fragment UNICODE
        : 'u' HEX HEX HEX HEX
        ;

fragment HEX
        : [0-9a-fA-F]
        ;