Clinical Quality Language Release 1

This page is part of the Clinical Quality Language Specification (v1.5.1: Normative - Normative) based on FHIR R4. This is the current published version in it's permanent home (it will always be available at this URL). For a full list of available versions, see the Directory of published versions

Clinical Decision Support Work GroupMaturity Level: NStandards Status: Normative

Appendix B – CQL Reference

Table of Contents

This appendix provides a reference for all the system-defined types, operators, and functions that can be used within CQL. It is intended to provide complete semantics for each available type and operator as a companion to the Author’s and Developer’s Guides. The reference is organized by operator category.

For each type, the definition and semantics are provided. Note that because CQL does not define a type declaration syntax, the definitions are expressed in a pseudo-syntax.

For each operator or function, the signature, semantics, and usually an example are provided. Note that for built-in operators, the signature is expressed in a pseudo-syntax intended to clearly define the operator and its parameters. Although the symbolic operators may in general be prefix, infix, or postfix operators, the signatures for each operator are defined using function definition syntax for consistency and ease of representation. For example, the signature for the and operator is given as:

and(left Boolean, right Boolean) Boolean

Even though and is an infix operator and would be invoked as in the following expression:

InDemographic and NeedsScreening

In addition, formatting strings are used throughout the reference to describe possible string formats for operators such as ToDateTime that convert a string to a DateTime value. The following symbols are used to describe format strings:

  • 0 - Any digit must appear at this location in the format string

  • # - Any digit may appear at this location in the format string

  • ? - The immediately preceding pattern is optional

  • ( ) - Used to group patterns

  • | - Used to combine choices of patterns (e.g. +|- means a + or - may appear at this location)

Any other character in a format string indicates that that character must appear at that location (or may appear if it is modified by the optional indicator, or part of a group that is modified by the optional indicator), with the exception of the following patterns used when describing date and time format strings:

  • YYYY - A full four digit year (0001..9999), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • MM - A full two digit month value (01..12), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • DD - A full two digit day value (00..31), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • hh - A full two digit hour value (00..24), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • mm - A full two digit minute value (00..59), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • ss - A full two digit second value (00..59), padded with leading zeroes if necessary

  • fff - A fractional millisecond value (0..999)

These formatting patterns are set in bold to distinguish them typographically from literals or code and to make clear that they are not intended to be formally interpreted as regex patterns.

1. Types

1.1. Any

Definition:

simple type Any

Description:

The Any type is the maximal supertype in the CQL type system, meaning that all types derive from Any, including list, interval, and structured types. In addition, the type of a null result is Any.

1.2. Boolean

Definition:

simple type Boolean

Description:

The Boolean type represents the logical boolean values true and false. The result of logical operations within CQL use the Boolean type, and constructs within the language that expect a conditional result, such as a where clause or conditional expression, expect results of the Boolean type.

For more information, see the Logical Operators section.

1.3. Code

Definition:

structured type Code
{
  code String,
  display String,
  system String,
  version String
}

Description:

The Code type represents single terminology codes within CQL.

1.4. CodeSystem

The CodeSystem type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Definition:

structured type CodeSystem
{
  id String,
  version String
}

Description:

The CodeSystem type represents code system references within CQL. The CodeSystem type in CQL is not the definition of a code system, it is a reference to an externally defined code system via a globally unique identifier (the id element, typically a URL) and an optional version (the version element, an opaque string, typically a version identifier as specified by the code system).

1.5. Concept

Definition:

structured type Concept
{
  codes List<Code>,
  display String
}

Description:

The Concept type represents a single terminological concept within CQL.

1.6. Date

Definition:

simple type Date

Description:

The Date type represents date values with potential uncertainty within CQL.

CQL supports date values in the range @0001-01-01 to @9999-12-31 with a 1 day step size.

CQL also supports partial date values. For example, the date @2014 represents some day in the year 2014.

1.7. DateTime

Definition:

simple type DateTime

Description:

The DateTime type represents date and time values with potential uncertainty within CQL.

CQL supports date and time values in the range @0001-01-01T00:00:00.0 to @9999-12-31T23:59:59.999 with a 1 millisecond step size. Note that DateTime values may also optionally indicate an offset.

CQL also supports partial datetime values. For example, the datetime @2014-01-01T03 represents some instant during the hour of 3:00 on January 1st, 2014.

Although the milliseconds are specified with a separate component, seconds and milliseconds are combined and represented as a Decimal for the purposes of comparison.

1.8. Decimal

Definition:

simple type Decimal

Note that implementations must support at least the 28 digits of precision and 8 digits of scale, but may support more precise values.

Description:

The Decimal type represents real values within CQL.

CQL supports positive and negative decimal values with a precision (meaning total number of possible digits) of 28 and a scale (meaning number of possible digits to the right of the decimal) of 8. In other words, decimal values in the range (-1028 + 1)/108 to (1028-1)/10-8 with a step size of 10-8.

1.9. Long

The CodeSystem type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Definition:

simple type Long

Description:

The Long type represents large whole number values within CQL.

CQL supports long values in the range -263 to 263-1 with a step size of 1.

1.10. Integer

Definition:

simple type Integer

Description:

The Integer type represents whole number values within CQL.

CQL supports integer values in the range -231 to 231-1 with a step size of 1.

1.11. Quantity

Definition:

structured type Quantity
{
  value Decimal
  unit String
}

Description:

The Quantity type represents quantities with a specified unit within CQL. The unit must be a valid UCUM unit or CQL temporal keyword. UCUM units in CQL use the case-sensitive (c/s) form. When a quantity value has no unit specified, operations are performed with the default UCUM unit ('1'). The value element of a Quantity must be present.

1.12. Ratio

Definition:

structured type Ratio
{
  numerator Quantity
  denominator Quantity
}

Description:

The Ratio type represents a relationship between two quantities, such as a titre (e.g. 1:128), or a concentration (e.g. 5 'mg':10’mL'). The numerator and denominator elements must be present (i.e. can not be null).

1.13. String

Definition:

simple type String

Description:

The String type represents string values within CQL.

CQL supports string values up to 231-1 characters in length.

For string literals, CQL uses standard escape sequences:

Escape Character

\'

Single-quote

\"

Double-quote

\r

Carriage Return

\n

Line Feed

\t

Tab

\f

Form Feed

\\

Backslash

\uXXXX

Unicode character, where XXXX is the hexadecimal representation of the character

1.14. Time

Definition:

simple type Time

Description:

The Time type represents time-of-day values within CQL.

CQL supports time values in the range @T00:00:00.0 to @T23:59:59.999 with a step size of 1 millisecond.

CQL also supports partial time values. For example, the time @T03 represents some instant during the hour of 3:00.

Although the milliseconds are specified with a separate component, seconds and milliseconds are combined and represented as a Decimal for the purposes of comparison.

1.15. ValueSet

The ValueSet type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Definition:

structured type ValueSet
{
  id String,
  version String
}

Description:

The ValueSet type represents value set references within CQL. The ValueSet type is not the definition of a value set, it is a reference to an externally defined value set via a globally unique identifier (the id element, typically a URL) and an optional version (the version element, an opaque string, typically a version identifier as specified by the publishing authority).

1.16. Vocabulary

The Vocabulary type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Definition:

structured type Vocabulary
{
  id String,
  version String
}

Description:

The Vocabulary type is the abstract base type for the CodeSystem and ValueSet types. It is intended to support the definition of operations that could be performed against a ValueSet or a CodeSystem.

The Vocabulary type is not a definitional type, it is a reference type that supports references to externally defined code systems and value sets through a globally unique identifier (the id element, typically a URL) and an optional version (the version element, an opaque string, typically a version identifier as specified by the publishing authority).

2. Logical Operators

2.1. And

Signature:

and (left Boolean, right Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The and operator returns true if both its arguments are true. If either argument is false, the result is false. Otherwise, the result is null.

The following table defines the truth table for this operator:

TRUE FALSE NULL

TRUE

TRUE

FALSE

NULL

FALSE

FALSE

FALSE

FALSE

NULL

NULL

FALSE

NULL

Table 9‑A - The truth table for the And operator

Example:

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the and operator:

define "IsTrue": true and true
define "IsFalse": true and false
define "IsAlsoFalse": false and null
define "IsNull": true and null

Note that CQL does not prescribe short-circuit evaluation of logical operators.

2.2. Implies

Signature:

implies (left Boolean, right Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The implies operator returns the logical implication of its arguments. This means that if the left operand evaluates to true, this operator returns the boolean evaluation of the right operand. If the left operand evaluates to false, this operator returns true. Otherwise, this operator returns true if the right operand evaluates to true, and null otherwise.

Note that implies may use short-circuit evaluation in the case that the first operand evaluates to false.

The following table defines the truth table for this operator:

TRUE FALSE NULL

TRUE

TRUE

FALSE

NULL

FALSE

TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

NULL

TRUE

NULL

NULL

Table 9‑A1 - The truth table for the Implies operator

Example:

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the implies operator:

define "IsTrue": false implies false
define "IsAlsoTrue": false implies null
define "IsFalse": true implies false
define "IsNull": true implies null

2.3. Not

Signature:

not (argument Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The not operator returns true if the argument is false and false if the argument is true. Otherwise, the result is null.

The following table defines the truth table for this operator:

NOT

TRUE

FALSE

FALSE

TRUE

NULL

NULL

Table 9‑B - The truth table for the Not operator

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not operator:

define "IsTrue": not false
define "IsFalse": not true
define "IsNull": not null

2.4. Or

Signature:

or (left Boolean, right Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The or operator returns true if either of its arguments are true. If both arguments are false, the result is false. Otherwise, the result is null.

The following table defines the truth table for this operator:

TRUE FALSE NULL

TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

FALSE

TRUE

FALSE

NULL

NULL

TRUE

NULL

NULL

Table 9‑C - The truth table for the Or operator

Example:

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the or operator:

define "IsTrue": true or false
define "IsAlsoTrue": true or null
define "IsFalse": false or false
define "IsNull": false or null

Note that CQL does not prescribe short-circuit evaluation of logical operators.

2.5. Xor

Signature:

xor (left Boolean, right Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The xor (exclusive or) operator returns true if one argument is true and the other is false. If both arguments are true or both arguments are false, the result is false. Otherwise, the result is null.

The following table defines the truth table for this operator:

TRUE FALSE NULL

TRUE

FALSE

TRUE

NULL

FALSE

TRUE

FALSE

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

Table 9‑D - The truth table for the Xor operator

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the xor operator:

define "IsTrue": true xor false
define "IsAlsoTrue": false xor true
define "IsFalse": true xor true
define "IsNull": true xor null

3. Type Operators

3.1. As

Signature:

as<T>(argument Any) T
cast as<T>(argument Any) T

Description:

The as operator allows the result of an expression to be cast as a given target type. This allows expressions to be written that are statically typed against the expected run-time type of the argument.

If the argument is not of the specified type at run-time the result is null.

The cast prefix indicates that if the argument is not of the specified type at run-time then an exception is thrown.

Example:

The following examples illustrate the use of the as operator.

define "AllProcedures": [Procedure]

define "ImagingProcedures":
  AllProcedures P
    where P is ImagingProcedure
    return P as ImagingProcedure

define "RuntimeError":
  ImagingProcedures P
    return cast P as Observation

3.2. Children

Signature:

Children(argument Any) List<Any>

Description:

For structured types, the Children operator returns a list of all the values of the elements of the type. List-valued elements are expanded and added to the result individually, rather than as a single list.

For list types, the result is the same as invoking Children on each element in the list and flattening the resulting lists into a single result.

If the source is null, the result is null.

3.3. Convert

Signature:

convert to<T>(argument Any) T

Description:

The convert operator converts a value to a specific type. The result of the operator is the value of the argument converted to the target type, if possible. If there is no valid conversion from the actual value to the target type, the result is null.

The following table lists the conversions supported in CQL:

From\To Boolean Integer Long Decimal Quantity Ratio String Date DateTime Time Code Concept List<Code>

Boolean

N/A

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

-

-

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

Integer

Explicit

N/A

Implicit

Implicit

Implicit

-

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

Long

Explicit

Explicit

N/A

Implicit

-

-

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

Decimal

Explicit

-

-

N/A

Implicit

-

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quantity

-

-

-

-

N/A

-

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ratio

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Explicit

-

-

-

-

-

-

String

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

N/A

Explicit

Explicit

Explicit

-

-

-

Date

-

-

-

-

-

-

Explicit

N/A

Implicit

-

-

-

-

DateTime

-

-

-

-

-

-

Explicit

Explicit

N/A

-

-

-

-

Time

-

-

-

-

-

-

Explicit

-

-

N/A

-

-

-

Code

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Implicit

-

Concept

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Explicit

List<Code>

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Explicit

N/A

Table 9‑E - The conversions supported in CQL

For conversions between dates, times, and string values, ISO-8601 standard format is used:

YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fff(Z|+|-)hh:mm

For example, the following are valid string representations for date and time values:

'2014-01-01T14:30:00.0Z' // January 1st, 2014, 2:30PM UTC
'2014-01-01T14:30:00.0-07:00' // January 1st, 2014, 2:30PM Mountain Standard (GMT-7:00)
'T14:30:00.0Z' // 2:30PM UTC
'T14:30:00.0-07:00' // 2:30PM Mountain Standard (GMT-7:00)

For specific semantics for each conversion, refer to the explicit conversion operator documentation.

3.4. Descendents

Signature:

Descendents(argument Any) List<Any>

Description:

For structured types, the Descendents operator returns a list of all the values of the elements of the type, recursively. List-valued elements are expanded and added to the result individually, rather than as a single list.

For list types, the result is the same as invoking Descendents on each element in the list and flattening the resulting lists into a single result.

If the source is null, the result is null.

3.5. Is

Signature:

is<T>(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The is operator allows the type of a result to be tested. If the run-time type of the argument is of the type being tested, the result of the operator is true; otherwise, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the is operator:

define "IsTrue": 5 is Integer
define "IsFalse": '5' is Integer

3.6. CanConvertQuantity

Signature:

CanConvertQuantity(argument Quantity, unit String)

Description:

The CanConvertQuantity operator returns true if the Quantity can be converted to an equivalent Quantity with the given Unit. Otherwise, the result is false.

Note that implementations are not required to support quantity conversion, and so may return false, even if the conversion is valid. Implementations that do support unit conversion shall do so according to the conversion specified by UCUM.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

3.7. ConvertQuantity

Signature:

convert <quantity> to <unit>
ConvertQuantity(argument Quantity, unit String)

The ConvertQuantity operator converts a Quantity to an equivalent Quantity with the given unit. If the unit of the input quantity can be converted to the target unit, the result is an equivalent Quantity with the target unit. Otherwise, the result is null.

Note that implementations are not required to support quantity conversion. Implementations that do support unit conversion shall do so according to the conversion specified by UCUM. Implementations that do not support unit conversion shall throw an error if an unsupported unit conversion is requested with this operation.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

define "ConvertQuantity": ConvertQuantity(5 'mg', 'g')
define "ConvertSyntax": convert 5 'mg' to 'g'

3.8. ConvertsToBoolean

Signature:

ConvertsToBoolean(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToBoolean operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Boolean value. See the ToBoolean operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input cannot be interpreted as a valid Boolean value, the result is false.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.9. ConvertsToDate

Signature:

ConvertsToDate(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToDate operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Date value. See the ToDate operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid date value, the result is false.

As with date literals, date values may be specified to any precision.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.10. ConvertsToDateTime

Signature:

ConvertsToDateTime(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToDateTime operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a DateTime value. See the ToDateTime operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid DateTime value, the result is false.

As with date and time literals, DateTime values may be specified to any precision. If no timezone offset is supplied, the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp is assumed.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.11. ConvertsToDecimal

Signature:

ConvertsToDecimal(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ToDecimal operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Decimal value. See the ToDecimal operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Decimal value, the result is false.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.12. ConvertsToLong

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Signature:

ConvertsToLong(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToLong operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Long value. See the ToLong operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Long value, the result is false.

3.13. ConvertsToInteger

Signature:

ConvertsToInteger(argument Any) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The ConvertsToInteger operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to an Integer value. See the ToInteger operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Integer value, the result is false.

If the input is a Long value, the result is true if the value is within the range of an Integer, otherwise, the result is false.

3.14. ConvertsToQuantity

Signature:

ConvertsToQuantity(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToQuantity operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Quantity value. See the ToQuantity operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Quantity value, the result is false.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.14.1. ConvertsToRatio

Signature:

ConvertsToRatio(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToRatio operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Ratio value. See the ToRatio operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Ratio value, the result is false.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.15. ConvertsToString

Signature:

ConvertsToString(argument Any) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The ConvertsToString operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a String value. See the ToString operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.16. ConvertsToTime

Signature:

ConvertsToTime(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The ConvertsToTime operator returns true if its argument is or can be converted to a Time value. See the ToTime operator for a description of the supported conversions.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid time-of-day value, the result is false.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.17. ToBoolean

Signature:

ToBoolean(argument Decimal) Boolean
ToBoolean(argument Long) Boolean
ToBoolean(argument Integer) Boolean
ToBoolean(argument String) Boolean

Description:

The ToBoolean operator converts the value of its argument to a Boolean value. The operator accepts the following string representations, ignoring case:

String Representation Boolean Value

true t yes y 1

true

false f no n 0

false

Table 9‑F - The string representations that the ToBoolean operator accepts

Note that the operator will ignore case when interpreting the string as a Boolean value.

If the input cannot be interpreted as a valid Boolean value, the result is null.

If the input is an Integer or Long, the result is true if the integer is 1, false if the integer is 0.

If the input is a Decimal, the result is true if the decimal is 1.0, false if the decimal is 0.0.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToBoolean operator:

define "IsTrue": ToBoolean('y')
define "IsFalse": ToBoolean('0')
define "IsNull": ToBoolean('falsetto')

3.18. ToConcept

Signature:

ToConcept(argument Code) Concept
ToConcept(argument List<Code>) Concept

Description:

The ToConcept operator converts a value of type Code to a Concept value with the given Code as its primary and only Code. If the Code has a display value, the resulting Concept will have the same display value.

If the input is a list of Code values, the resulting Concept will have all the input Code values, and will not have a display value.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToConcept operator:

define "IsValid": ToConcept(Code { system: 'http://loinc.org', code: '8480-6' }) // Concept { codes: { Code { system: 'http://loinc.org', code: '8480-6' } } }
define "IsNull": ToConcept(null as Code)

3.19. ToDate

Signature:

ToDate(argument DateTime) Date
ToDate(argument String) Date

Description:

The ToDate operator converts the value of its argument to a Date value.

For the DateTime overload, the operator is equivalent to invoking date from on the DateTime value.

For the string overload, the operator expects the string to be formatted using the ISO-8601 date representation:

YYYY-MM-DD

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

In addition, the string must be interpretable as a valid date value.

Note that the operator can take datetime formatted strings and will ignore the time portions.

For example, the following are valid string representations for date values:

'2014-01' // January, 2014
'2014-01-01' // January 1st, 2014
'2014-01-01T12:30:00' // Still January 1st, 2014, time portion will be ignored

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid date value, the result is null.

As with date literals, date values may be specified to any precision.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.20. ToDateTime

Signature:

ToDateTime(argument Date) DateTime
ToDateTime(argument String) DateTime

Description:

The ToDateTime operator converts the value of its argument to a DateTime value.

For the string overload, the operator expects the string to be formatted using the ISO-8601 datetime representation:

YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fff(Z|+|-)hh:mm

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

In addition, the string must be interpretable as a valid DateTime value.

For example, the following are valid string representations for DateTime values:

'2014-01-01' // January 1st, 2014
'2014-01-01T14:30:00.0Z' // January 1st, 2014, 2:30PM UTC
'2014-01-01T14:30:00.0-07:00' // January 1st, 2014, 2:30PM Mountain Standard (GMT-7:00)

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid DateTime value, the result is null.

As with Date and Time literals, DateTime values may be specified to any precision. If no timezone offset is supplied, the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp is assumed.

For the Date overload, the result will be a DateTime with the time components set to zero, except for the timezone offset, which will be set to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

3.21. ToDecimal

Signature:

ToDecimal(argument Boolean) Decimal
ToDecimal(argument String) Decimal

Description:

The ToDecimal operator converts the value of its argument to a Decimal value. The operator accepts strings using the following format:

(+|-)?#0(.0#)?

Meaning an optional polarity indicator, followed by any number of digits (including none), followed by at least one digit, followed optionally by a decimal point, at least one digit, and any number of additional digits (including none).

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

Note that the Decimal value returned by this operator will be limited in precision and scale to the maximum precision and scale representable by the implementation (at least 28 digits of precision, and 8 digits of scale).

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Decimal value, the result is null.

If the input is Boolean, true will result in 1.0, false will result in 0.0.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToDecimal operator:

define "IsValid": ToDecimal('-0.1')
define "IsNull": ToDecimal('+-0.1')

3.22. ToLong

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Signature:

ToLong(argument Boolean) Long
ToLong(argument Integer) Long
ToLong(argument String) Long

Description:

The ToLong operator converts the value of its argument to a Long value. The operator accepts strings using the following format:

(+|-)?#0

Meaning an optional polarity indicator, followed by any number of digits (including none), followed by at least one digit.

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

Note that the long value returned by this operator must be a valid value in the range representable for Long values in CQL.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Long value, the result is null.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToLong operator:

define "IsValid": ToLong('-1')
define "IsNull": ToLong('one')

3.23. ToInteger

Signature:

ToInteger(argument Boolean) Integer
ToInteger(argument String) Integer
ToInteger(argument Long) Integer

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The ToInteger operator converts the value of its argument to an Integer value. The operator accepts strings using the following format:

(+|-)?#0

Meaning an optional polarity indicator, followed by any number of digits (including none), followed by at least one digit.

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

Note that the integer value returned by this operator must be a valid value in the range representable for Integer values in CQL.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Integer value, the result is null.

If the input is a Long value that can be represented within the range of Integer values, the result is the Integer value; otherwise, the result is null.

If the input is Boolean, true will result in 1, false will result in 0.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToInteger operator:

define "IsValid": ToInteger('-1')
define "IsNull": ToInteger('one')

3.24. ToQuantity

Signature:

ToQuantity(argument Decimal) Quantity
ToQuantity(argument Integer) Quantity
ToQuantity(argument Ratio) Quantity
ToQuantity(argument String) Quantity

Description:

The ToQuantity operator converts the value of its argument to a Quantity value. The operation does not perform any unit conversion, that capability is supported by the ConvertQuantity operator.

For the String overload, the operator accepts strings using the following format:

(+|-)?#0(.0#)?('<unit>')?

Meaning an optional polarity indicator, followed by any number of digits (including none) followed by at least one digit, optionally followed by a decimal point, at least one digit, and any number of additional digits, all optionally followed by a unit designator as a string literal specifying a valid, case-sensitive UCUM unit of measure or calendar duration keyword, singular or plural. Spaces are allowed between the quantity value and the unit designator.

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

Note that the decimal value of the quantity returned by this operator must be a valid value in the range representable for Decimal values in CQL.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Quantity value, the result is null.

For the Integer and Decimal overloads, the operator returns a quantity with the value of the argument and a unit of '1' (the default unit).

For the Ratio overload, the operator is equivalent to dividing the numerator of the ratio by the denominator.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToQuantity operator:

define "DecimalOverload": ToQuantity(0.1) // 0.1 '1'
define "IntegerOverload": ToQuantity(13) // 13 '1'
define "StringOverload": ToQuantity('-0.1 \'mg\'') // -0.1 'mg'
define "IsNull": ToQuantity('444 \'cm')

3.24.1. ToRatio

Signature:

ToRatio(argument String) Ratio

Description:

The ToRatio operator converts the value of its argument to a Ratio value. The operator accepts strings using the following format:

<quantity>:<quantity>

where <quantity> is the format used to by the ToQuantity operator.

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or cannot be interpreted as a valid Ratio value, the result is null.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToRatio operator:

define "IsValid": ToRatio('1.0 \'mg\':2.0 \'mg\'')
define "IsNull": ToRatio('1.0 \'mg\';2.0 \'mg\'')

3.25. ToString

Signature:

ToString(argument Boolean) String
ToString(argument Integer) String
ToString(argument Long) String
ToString(argument Decimal) String
ToString(argument Quantity) String
ToString(argument Ratio) String
ToString(argument Date) String
ToString(argument DateTime) String
ToString(argument Time) String

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The ToString operator converts the value of its argument to a String value. The operator uses the following string representations for each type

Type String Representation

Boolean

true|false

Integer

(-)?#0

Long

(-)?#0

Decimal

(-)?#0.0#

Quantity

(-)?#0.0# '<unit>'

Ratio

<quantity>:<quantity>

Date

YYYY-MM-DD

DateTime

YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fff(+|-)hh:mm

Time

hh:mm:ss.fff

Table 9‑G - The string representations that the ToString operator uses for each data type

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

The result of any ToString must be round-trippable back to the source value.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ToString operator:

define "BooleanOverload": ToString(true)
define "IntegerOverload": ToString(13)
define "LongOverload": ToString(10000L)
define "DecimalOverload": ToString(0.1)
define "QuantityOverload": ToString(-0.1 'mg')
define "RatioOverload": ToString(-0.1 'mg':0.1 'mg')
define "DateOverload": ToString(@2012-01-01)
define "DateTimeOverload": ToString(@2012-01-01T12:30:00.000-05:00)
define "TimeOverload": ToString(@T12:30:00.000)
define "IsNull": ToString(null as Integer)

3.26. ToTime

Signature:

ToTime(argument String) Time

Description:

The ToTime operator converts the value of its argument to a Time value. The operator expects the string to be formatted using ISO-8601 time representation

hh:mm:ss.fff

See Formatting Strings for a description of the formatting strings used in this specification.

In addition, the string must be interpretable as a valid time-of-day value.

For example, the following are valid string representations for time-of-day values:

'14:30:00.0' // 2:30PM

If the input string is not formatted correctly, or does not represent a valid time-of-day value, the result is null.

As with time-of-day literals, time-of-day values may be specified to any precision.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

4. Nullological Operators

4.1. Coalesce

Signature:

Coalesce<T>(argument1 T, argument2 T) T
Coalesce<T>(argument1 T, argument2 T, argument3 T) T
Coalesce<T>(argument1 T, argument2 T, argument3 T, argument4 T) T
Coalesce<T>(argument1 T, argument2 T, argument3 T, argument4 T, argument5 T) T
Coalesce<T>(arguments List<T>) T

Description:

The Coalesce operator returns the first non-null result in a list of arguments. If all arguments evaluate to null, the result is null.

The static type of the first argument determines the type of the result, and all subsequent arguments must be of that same type.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Coalesce operator:

define "Coalesce15": Coalesce(null, 15, null)
define "IsNull": Coalesce({ null, null, null })
define "CoalesceError": Coalesce(null, 15, null, null, null, null) // more than 5 inputs must be represented as list

4.2. IsNull

Signature:

is null(argument Any) Boolean

Description:

The is null operator determines whether or not its argument evaluates to null. If the argument evaluates to null, the result is true; otherwise, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the is null operator:

define "IsTrue": null is null
define "IsFalse": true is null

4.3. IsFalse

Signature:

is false(argument Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The is false operator determines whether or not its argument evaluates to false. If the argument evaluates to false, the result is true; otherwise, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the is false operator:

define "IsFalseIsTrue": false is false
define "IsFalseIsFalse": null is false

4.4. IsTrue

Signature:

is true(argument Boolean) Boolean

Description:

The is true operator determines whether or not its argument evaluates to true. If the argument evaluates to true, the result is true; otherwise, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the is true operator:

define "IsTrueIsTrue": true is true
define "IsTrueIsFalse": false is true

5. Comparison Operators

5.1. Between

Signature:

between(argument Integer, low Integer, high Integer) Boolean
between(argument Long, low Long, high Long) Boolean
between(argument Decimal, low Decimal, high Decimal) Boolean
between(argument Quantity, low Quantity, high Quantity) Boolean
between(argument Date, low Date, high Date) Boolean
between(argument DateTime, low DateTime, high DateTime) Boolean
between(argument Time, low Time, high Time) Boolean
between(argument String, low String, high String) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The between operator determines whether the first argument is within a given range, inclusive. If the first argument is greater than or equal to the low argument, and less than or equal to the high argument, the result is true, otherwise, the result is false.

For comparisons involving quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null.

For comparisons involving Date, DateTime, or Time values with imprecision, note that the result of the comparison may be null, depending on whether the values involved are specified to the level of precision used for the comparison. For example:

define "DateTimeBetweenIsNull": @2012-01-01 between @2012-01-01T12 and @2012-01-02T12

Note that for the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal comparison semantics.

For integer and decimal values, standard ordinal semantics apply.

String comparisons are strictly lexical based on the Unicode value of the individual characters in the string.

If any argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the between operator:

define "IntegerBetweenIsTrue": 4 between 2 and 6
define "LongBetweenIsTrue": 4L between 2L and 6L
define "DecimalBetweenIsFalse": 3.5 between 3.6 and 4.8
define "QuantityBetweenIsNull": 3.5 'cm2' between 3.0 'cm' and 4.8 'cm'

5.2. Equal

Signature:

=<T>(left T, right T) Boolean

Description:

The equal (=) operator returns true if the arguments are equal; false if the arguments are known unequal, and null otherwise. Equality semantics are defined to be value-based.

For simple types, this means that equality returns true if and only if the result of each argument evaluates to the same value.

For string values, equality is strictly lexical based on the Unicode values for the individual characters in the strings.

For decimal values, trailing zeroes are ignored.

For quantities, this means that the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

For time-valued quantities, UCUM definite-time duration quantities above days (and weeks) are not comparable to calendar duration quantities above days (and weeks). Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics:

1 year = 12 months
1 week = 7 days
1 day = 24 hours
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 second = 1000 milliseconds

In particular, unit conversion between variable length calendar durations (i.e. years and months) and definite-time durations (i.e. days or below) results in null.

For ratios, this means that the numerator and denominator must be the same, using quantity equality semantics.

For tuple types, this means that equality returns true if and only if the tuples are of the same type, and the values for all elements that have values, by name, are equal.

For list types, this means that equality returns true if and only if the lists contain elements of the same type, have the same number of elements, and for each element in the lists, in order, the elements are equal using equality semantics, with the exception that null elements are considered equal.

For interval types, equality returns true if and only if the intervals are over the same point type, and they have the same value for the starting and ending points of the interval as determined by the Start and End operators.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the values are different, the comparison stops and the result is false. If one input has a value for the precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is null; if neither input has a value for the precision, or the last precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true. For the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal equality semantics.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equal operator:

define "IntegerEqualIsTrue": 4 = (2 + 2)
define "LongEqualIsTrue": 4L = (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalEqualIsFalse": 3.5 = (3.5 - 0.1)
define "StringEqualIsFalse": 'John Doe' = 'john doe'
define "QuantityEqualIsNull": 3.5 'cm2' = 3.5 'cm'
define "RatioEqualIsTrue": 1:8 = 1:8
define "RatioEqualIsFalse": 1:8 = 2:16
define "ListEqualIsTrue": { null, 1, 2, 3 } = { null, 1, 2, 3 }
define "DateTimeEqualIsNull": @2012-01-01 = @2012-01-01T12
define "NullEqualIsNull": null = null

5.3. Equivalent

Signature:

~<T>(left T, right T) Boolean

Description:

The equivalent (~) operator returns true if the arguments are equivalent in value, or if they are both null; and false otherwise.

With the exception of null behavior and the semantics for specific types defined below, equivalence is the same as equality.

For string values, equivalence returns true if the strings are the same value while ignoring case and locale, and normalizing whitespace. Normalizing whitespace means that all whitespace characters are treated as equivalent, with whitespace characters as defined in the whitespace lexical category.

For decimals, equivalent means the values are the same with the comparison done on values rounded to the precision of the least precise operand; trailing zeroes after the decimal are ignored in determining precision for equivalent comparison.

For quantities, equivalent means the values are the same quantity when considering unit conversion (e.g. 100 'cm' ~ 1 'm') and using decimal equivalent semantics for the value. Note that implementations are not required to support unit conversion and so are allowed to return false for equivalence of quantities with different units.

For time-valued quantities, UCUM definite-time duration quantities above days (and weeks) are considered equivalent to their calendar duration counterparts:

1 year ~ 1 'a'
1 month ~ 1 'mo'
1 week = 1 'wk' // and 1 week ~ 1 'wk'
1 day = 1 'd' // and 1 day ~ 1 'd'
1 hour = 1 'h' // and 1 hour ~ 1 'h'
1 minute = 1 'min' // and 1 minute ~ 1 'min'
1 second = 1 's' // and 1 second ~ 1 's'
1 millisecond = 1 'ms' // and 1 millsecond ~ 1 'ms'

Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics:

1 year ~ 12 months
1 year ~ 365 days
1 month ~ 30 days
1 week = 7 days
1 day = 24 hours
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 second = 1000 milliseconds

For ratios, equivalent means that the numerator and denominator represent the same ratio (e.g. 1:100 ~ 10:1000).

For tuple types, this means that two tuple values are equivalent if and only if the tuples are of the same type, and the values for all elements by name are equivalent.

For list types, this means that two list values are equivalent if and only if the lists contain elements of the same type, have the same number of elements, and for each element in the lists, in order, the elements are equivalent.

For interval types, this means that two intervals are equivalent if and only if the intervals are over the same point type, and the starting and ending points of the intervals as determined by the Start and End operators are equivalent.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed in the same way as it is for equality, except that if one input has a value for a given precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is false, rather than null. As with equality, the second and millisecond precisions are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal equivalence semantics.

For Code values, equivalence is defined based on the code and system elements only. The version and display elements are ignored for the purposes of determining Code equivalence.

For Concept values, equivalence is defined as a non-empty intersection of the codes in each Concept.

Note that this operator will always return true or false, even if either or both of its arguments are null, or contain null components.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equivalent operator:

define "IntegerEquivalentIsTrue": 4 ~ (2 + 2)
define "LongEquivalentIsTrue": 4L ~ (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalEquivalentIsFalse": 3.5 ~ (3.5 - 0.1)
define "StringEquivalentIsTrue": 'John Doe' ~ 'john doe'
define "QuantityEquivalentIsFalse": 3.5 'cm2' ~ 3.5 'cm'
define "RatioEquivalentIsTrue": 1:8 ~ 2:16
define "ListEquivalentIsTrue": { null, 1, 2, 3 } ~ { null, 1, 2, 3 }
define "DateTimeEquivalentIsFalse": @2012-01-01 ~ @2012-01-01T12
define "NullEquivalentIsTrue": null ~ null

5.4. Greater

Signature:

>(left Integer, right Integer) Boolean
>(left Long, right Long) Boolean
>(left Decimal, right Decimal) Boolean
>(left Quantity, right Quantity) Boolean
>(left Date, right Date) Boolean
>(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
>(left Time, right Time) Boolean
>(left String, right String) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The greater (>) operator returns true if the first argument is greater than the second argument.

String comparisons are strictly lexical based on the Unicode value of the individual characters in the string.

For comparisons involving quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

For time-valued quantities, the UCUM definite-quantity durations above days (and weeks) are not comparable to calendar durations. Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics. In particular, unit conversion between variable length calendar durations (i.e. years and months) and definite-time durations (i.e. days or below) results in null.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is true; if the first value is less than the second, the result is false; if one input has a value for the precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is null; if neither input has a value for the precision or the last precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is false. For example:

define "DateTimeGreaterIsNull": @2012-01-01 > @2012-01-01T12

Note that for the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal comparison semantics.

For integer and decimal values, standard ordinal semantics apply.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the greater operator:

define "IntegerGreaterIsTrue": 4 > 3
define "LongGreaterIsTrue": 4L > 3L
define "DecimalGreaterIsFalse": 3.5 > 3.5
define "QuantityGreaterIsNull": 3.6 'cm2' > 3.5 'cm'
define "NullGreaterIsNull": null > 5

Note that relative ratio comparisons are not directly supported due to the variance of uses within healthcare. See the discussion in Ratio Operators for more information.

5.5. Greater Or Equal

Signature:

>=(left Integer, right Integer) Boolean
>=(left Long, right Long) Boolean
>=(left Decimal, right Decimal) Boolean
>=(left Quantity, right Quantity) Boolean
>=(left Date, right Date) Boolean
>=(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
>=(left Time, right Time) Boolean
>=(left String, right String) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The greater or equal (>=) operator returns true if the first argument is greater than or equal to the second argument.

String comparisons are strictly lexical based on the Unicode value of the individual characters in the string.

For comparisons involving quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

For time-valued quantities, the UCUM definite-quantity durations above days (and weeks) are not comparable to calendar durations. Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics. In particular, unit conversion between variable length calendar durations (i.e. years and months) and definite-time durations (i.e. days or below) results in null.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is true; if the first value is less than the second, the result is false; if one input has a value for the precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is null; if neither input has a value for the precision or the last precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true. For example:

define "DateTimeGreaterOrEqualIsNull": @2012-01-01 >= @2012-01-01T12

Note that for the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal comparison semantics.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the greater or equal operator:

define "IntegerGreaterOrEqualIsTrue": 4 >= (2 + 2)
define "LongGreaterOrEqualIsTrue": 4L >= (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalGreaterOrEqualIsFalse": 3.5 >= (3.5 + 0.1)
define "QuantityGreaterOrEqualIsNull": 3.6 'cm2' >= 3.5 'cm'
define "NullGreaterOrEqualIsNull": null >= 5

Note that relative ratio comparisons are not directly supported due to the variance of uses within healthcare. See the discussion in Ratio Operators for more information.

5.6. Less

Signature:

<(left Integer, right Integer) Boolean
<(left Long, right Long) Boolean
<(left Decimal, right Decimal) Boolean
<(left Quantity, right Quantity) Boolean
<(left Date, right Date) Boolean
<(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
<(left Time, right Time) Boolean
<(left String, right String) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The less (<) operator returns true if the first argument is less than the second argument.

String comparisons are strictly lexical based on the Unicode value of the individual characters in the string.

For comparisons involving quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

For time-valued quantities, the UCUM definite-quantity durations above days (and weeks) are not comparable to calendar durations. Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics. In particular, unit conversion between variable length calendar durations (i.e. years and months) and definite-time durations (i.e. days or below) results in null.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is less than the second, the result is true; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is false; if one input has a value for the precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is null; if neither input has a value for the precision or the last precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is false. For example:

define "DateTimeLessIsNull": @2012-01-01 < @2012-01-01T12

Note that for the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal comparison semantics.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the less operator:

define "IntegerLessIsTrue": 4 < (2 + 2 + 2)
define "LongLessIsTrue": 4L < (2L + 2L + 2L)
define "DecimalLessIsFalse": 3.5 < 3.5
define "QuantityLessIsNull": 3.6 'cm2' < 3.5 'cm'
define "DateTimeLessIsNull": @2012-01-01 < @2012-01-01T12
define "NullLessIsNull": null < 5

Note that relative ratio comparisons are not directly supported due to the variance of uses within healthcare. See the discussion in Ratio Operators for more information.

5.7. Less Or Equal

Signature:

<=(left Integer, right Integer) Boolean
<=(left Long, right Long) Boolean
<=(left Decimal, right Decimal) Boolean
<=(left Quantity, right Quantity) Boolean
<=(left Date, right Date) Boolean
<=(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
<=(left Time, right Time) Boolean
<=(left String, right String) Boolean

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The less or equal (<=) operator returns true if the first argument is less than or equal to the second argument.

String comparisons are strictly lexical based on the Unicode value of the individual characters in the string.

For comparisons involving quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' are comparable, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' are not. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

For time-valued quantities, the UCUM definite-quantity durations above days (and weeks) are not comparable to calendar durations. Definite-time duration unit conversions shall be performed as specified in ISO-8601, while calendar-time duration unit conversions shall be performed according to calendar duration semantics. In particular, unit conversion between variable length calendar durations (i.e. years and months) and definite-time durations (i.e. days or below) results in null.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, the comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is less than the second, the result is true; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is false; if one input has a value for the precision and the other does not, the comparison stops and the result is null; if neither input has a value for the precision or the last precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true. For example:

define "DateTimeLessOrEqualIsNull": @2012-01-01 <= @2012-01-01T12

Note that for the purposes of comparison, seconds and milliseconds are combined as a single precision using a decimal, with decimal comparison semantics.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the less or equal operator:

define "IntegerLessOrEqualIsTrue": 4 <= (2 + 2)
define "LongLessOrEqualIsTrue": 4L <= (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalLessOrEqualIsFalse": 3.5 <= (3.5 - 0.1)
define "QuantityLessOrEqualIsNull": 3.6 'cm2' <= 3.6 'cm'
define "NullLessOrEqualIsNull": null <= 5

Note that relative ratio comparisons are not directly supported due to the variance of uses within healthcare. See the discussion in Ratio Operators for more information.

5.8. Not Equal

Signature:

!=<T>(left T, right T) Boolean

Description:

The not equal (!=) operator returns true if its arguments are not the same value.

The not equal operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equal operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equal operator:

define "IntegerNotEqualIsFalse": 4 != (2 + 2)
define "LongNotEqualIsFalse": 4L != (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalNotEqualIsTrue": 3.5 != (3.5 - 0.1)
define "StringNotEqualIsTrue": 'John Doe' != 'john doe'
define "QuantityNotEqualIsNull": 3.5 'cm2' != 3.5 'cm'
define "ListNotEqualIsNull": { null, 1, 2, 3 } != { null, 1, 2, 3 }
define "DateTimeNotEqualIsNull": @2012-01-01 != @2012-01-01T12
define "NullNotEqualIsNull": null != null

5.9. Not Equivalent

Signature:

!~<T>(left T, right T) Boolean

Description:

The not equivalent (!~) operator returns true if its arguments are not equivalent.

The not equivalent operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equivalent operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equivalent operator:

define "IntegerNotEquivalentIsFalse": 4 !~ (2 + 2)
define "LongNotEquivalentIsFalse": 4L !~ (2L + 2L)
define "DecimalNotEquivalentIsTrue": 3.5 !~ (3.5 - 0.1)
define "StringNotEquivalentIsFalse": 'John Doe' !~ 'john doe'
define "QuantityNotEquivalentIsTrue": 3.5 'cm2' !~ 3.5 'cm'
define "ListNotEquivalentIsFalse": { null, 1, 2, 3 } !~ { null, 1, 2, 3 }
define "DateTimeNotEquivalentIsTrue": @2012-01-01 !~ @2012-01-01T12
define "NullNotEquivalentIsFalse": null !~ null

6. Arithmetic Operators

The arithmetic operators provide a complete set of operations for performing arithmetic calculations in CQL. In general, operations that cause arithmetic overflow or underflow, or otherwise cannot be performed (such as division by 0) will result in null, rather than a run-time error.

6.1. Abs

Signature:

Abs(argument Integer) Integer
Abs(argument Long) Long
Abs(argument Decimal) Decimal
Abs(argument Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The Abs operator returns the absolute value of its argument.

When taking the absolute value of a quantity, the unit is unchanged.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of taking the absolute value of the input cannot be represented (e.g. Abs(minimum Integer)), the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Abs operator:

define "IntegerAbs": Abs(-5) // 5
define "IntegerAbsIsNull": Abs(null as Integer)
define "LongAbs": Abs(-5000000L) // 5000000L
define "DecimalAbs": Abs(-5.5) // 5.5
define "QuantityAbs": Abs(-5.5 'mg') // 5.5 'mg'

6.2. Add

Signature:

+(left Integer, right Integer) Integer
+(left Long, right Long) Long
+(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
+(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The add (+) operator performs numeric addition of its arguments.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal, the Long argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

When invoked with mixed Decimal and Quantity arguments, the Decimal argument will be implicitly converted to Quantity.

When adding quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' can be added, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' cannot. The unit of the result will be the most granular unit of either input. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the addition cannot be represented (i.e. arithmetic overflow), the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the add operator:

define "IntegerAdd": 2 + 2 // 4
define "IntegerAddIsNull": 2 + null
define "LongAdd": 25L + 5 // 30L
define "DecimalAdd": 2.5 + 5 // 7.5
define "QuantityAdd": -5.5 'mg' + 2 'mg' // -3.5 'mg'
define "QuantityAddIsNull": -5.5 'cm' + 2 'cm2'

6.3. Ceiling

Signature:

Ceiling(argument Decimal) Integer

Description:

The Ceiling operator returns the first integer greater than or equal to the argument.

When invoked with an Integer argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Ceiling operator:

define "IntegerCeiling": Ceiling(1) // 1
define "DecimalCeiling": Ceiling(1.1) // 2
define "QuantityCeilingIsNull": Ceiling(null as Decimal)

6.4. Divide

Signature:

/(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
/(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

Description:

The divide (/) operator performs numeric division of its arguments. Note that this operator is Decimal division; for Integer division, use the truncated divide (div) operator.

When invoked with Integer or Long arguments, the arguments will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

When invoked with a mixture of Decimal and Quantity arguments, the Decimal arguments will be implicitly converted to Quantity.

For division operations involving quantities, the resulting quantity will have the appropriate unit. For example:

12 'cm2' / 3 'cm'

In this example, the result will have a unit of 'cm'. Note that when performing division of quantities with the same units, the result will have the default UCUM unit ('1'). When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the division cannot be represented, or the right argument is 0, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the divide operator:

define "IntegerDivide": 4.0 / 2 // 2.0
define "LongDivide": 4.0 / 2L // 2.0
define "DecimalDivide": 9.9 / 3.0 // 3.3
define "DecimalDivideIsNull": 2.2 / null
define "DecimalDivideIsError": 2.2 / 0
define "QuantityDivide": -5.5 'mg' / 2.0 'mg' // -2.75

6.5. Floor

Signature:

Floor(argument Decimal) Integer

Description:

The Floor operator returns the first integer less than or equal to the argument.

When invoked with an Integer argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Floor operator:

define "IntegerFloor": Floor(1) // 1
define "DecimalFloor": Floor(2.1) // 2
define "QuantityFloorIsNull": Floor(null as Decimal)

6.6. Exp

Signature:

Exp(argument Decimal) Decimal

Description:

The Exp operator raises e to the power of its argument.

When invoked with an Integer or Long argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Exp operator:

define "IntegerExp": Exp(0) // 1.0
define "LongExp": Exp(0L) // 1.0
define "DecimalExp": Exp(-0.0) // 1.0
define "QuantityExpIsNull": Exp(null as Decimal)

6.7. HighBoundary

Signature:

HighBoundary(input Decimal, precision Integer) Decimal
HighBoundary(input Date, precision Integer) Date
HighBoundary(input DateTime, precision Integer) DateTime
HighBoundary(input Time, precision Integer) Time

Description:

The HighBoundary function returns the greatest possible value of the input to the specified precision.

If no precision is specified, the greatest precision of the type of the input value is used (i.e. at least 8 for Decimal, 4 for Date, at least 17 for DateTime, and at least 9 for Time).

If the precision is greater than the maximum possible precision of the implementation, the result is null.

The function can be used with Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time values.

HighBoundary(1.587, 8) // 1.58799999
HighBoundary(@2014, 6) // @2014-12
HighBoundary(@2014-01-01T08, 17) // @2014-01-01T08:59:59.999
HighBoundary(@T10:30, 9) // @T10:30:59.999

If the input value is null, the result is null.

6.8. Log

Signature:

Log(argument Decimal, base Decimal) Decimal

Description:

The Log operator computes the logarithm of its first argument, using the second argument as the base.

When invoked with Integer or Long arguments, the arguments will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Log operator:

define "IntegerLog": Log(16, 2) // 4.0
define "LongLog": Log(16L, 2L) // 4.0
define "DecimalLog": Log(100.0, 10.0) // 2.0
define "QuantityLogIsNull": Log(null, 10.0)

6.9. LowBoundary

Signature:

LowBoundary(input Decimal, precision Integer) Decimal
LowBoundary(input Date, precision Integer) Date
LowBoundary(input DateTime, precision Integer) DateTime
LowBoundary(input Time, precision Integer) Time

Description:

The LowBoundary function returns the least possible value of the input to the specified precision.

If no precision is specified, the greatest precision of the type of the input value is used (i.e. at least 8 for Decimal, 4 for Date, at least 17 for DateTime, and at least 9 for Time).

If the precision is greater than the maximum possible precision of the implementation, the result is null.

The function can be used with Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time values.

LowBoundary(1.587, 8) // 1.58700000
LowBoundary(@2014, 6) // @2014-01
LowBoundary(@2014-01-01T08, 17) // @2014-01-01T08:00:00.000
LowBoundary(@T10:30, 9) // @T10:30:00.000

If the input value is null, the result is null.

6.10. Ln

Signature:

Ln(argument Decimal) Decimal

Description:

The Ln operator computes the natural logarithm of its argument.

When invoked with an Integer or Long argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Ln operator:

define "IntegerLn": Ln(1) // 0.0
define "LongLn": Ln(1L) // 0.0
define "DecimalLn": Ln(1.0) // 0.0
define "QuantityLnIsNull": Ln(null as Decimal)

6.11. Maximum

Signature:

maximum<T>() T

Description:

The maximum operator returns the maximum representable value for the given type.

The maximum operator is defined for the Integer, Long, Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time types.

For Integer, maximum returns the maximum signed 32-bit integer, 231 - 1.

For Long, maximum returns the maximum signed 64-bit long, 263 - 1.

For Decimal, maximum returns the maximum representable decimal value, (1028 – 1) / 108 (99999999999999999999.99999999).

For Date, maximum returns the maximum representable date value, Date(9999, 12, 31).

For DateTime, maximum returns the maximum representable datetime value, DateTime(9999, 12, 31, 23, 59, 59, 999).

For Time, maximum returns the maximum representable time value, Time(23, 59, 59, 999).

For any other type, attempting to invoke maximum results in an error.

Note that implementations may choose to represent the maximum DateTime value using a constant offset such as UTC.

Note that if implementations support larger and/or more precise values than the minimum required precision and scale for Decimal, DateTime, and Time values, they will return the maximum representable decimal for the implementation.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the maximum operator:

define "IntegerMaximum": maximum Integer // 2147483647
define "LongMaximum": maximum Long // 9223372036854775807
define "DateTimeMaximum": maximum DateTime // @9999-12-31T23:59:59.999
define "ErrorMaximum": maximum Quantity

6.12. Minimum

Signature:

minimum<T>() T

Description:

The minimum operator returns the minimum representable value for the given type.

The minimum operator is defined for the Integer, Long, Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time types.

For Integer, minimum returns the minimum signed 32-bit integer, -231.

For Long, minimum returns the minimum signed 64-bit long, -263.

For Decimal, minimum returns the minimum representable decimal value, (-1028 + 1) / 108 (-99999999999999999999.99999999).

For Date, minimum returns the minimum representable date value, DateTime(1, 1, 1).

For DateTime, minimum returns the minimum representable datetime value, DateTime(1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0).

For Time, minimum returns the minimum representable time value, Time(0, 0, 0, 0).

For any other type, attempting to invoke minimum results in an error.

Note that implementations may choose to represent the minimum DateTime value using a constant offset such as UTC.

Note that if implementations support larger and/or more precise values than the minimum required precision and scale for Decimal, DateTime, and Time values, they will return the minimum representable decimal for the implementation.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the minimum operator:

define "IntegerMinimum": minimum Integer // -2147483648
define "LongMinimum": minimum Long // -9223372036854775808
define "DateTimeMinimum": minimum DateTime // @0001-01-01T00:00:00.000
define "ErrorMinimum": minimum Quantity

6.13. Modulo

Signature:

mod(left Integer, right Integer) Integer
mod(left Long, right Long) Long
mod(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
mod(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status. The Quantity overload for this operator is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The mod operator computes the remainder of the division of its arguments.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal arguments, the Long argument will be implicitly convert to Decimal.

When invoked with mixed Integer or Decimal, and Quantity arguments, the Integer or Decimal argument will be implicitly converted to Quantity.

For modulo operations involving quantities, the resulting quantity will have the appropriate unit.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the modulo cannot be represented, or the right argument is 0, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the mod operator:

define "IntegerModulo": 3 mod 2 // 1
define "LongModulo": 3L mod 2 // 1L
define "DecimalModulo": 2.5 mod 2 // 0.5
define "ModuloIsNull": 2.5 mod null

6.14. Multiply

Signature:

*(left Integer, right Integer) Integer
*(left Long, right Long) Long
*(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
*(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The multiply (*) operator performs numeric multiplication of its arguments.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal arguments, the Long argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

When invoked with mixed Decimal and Quantity arguments, the Decimal argument will be implicitly converted to Quantity.

For multiplication operations involving quantities, the resulting quantity will have the appropriate unit. For example:

12 'cm' * 3 'cm'
3 'cm' * 12 'cm2'

In this example, the first result will have a unit of 'cm2', and the second result will have a unit of 'cm3'. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

6.15. Negate

Signature:

-(argument Integer) Integer
-(argument Long) Long
-(argument Decimal) Decimal
-(argument Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The negate (-) operator returns the negative of its argument.

When negating quantities, the unit is unchanged.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of negating the argument cannot be represented (e.g. -(minimum Integer)), the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the negate operator:

define "IntegerNegate": -3 // -3
define "LongNegate": -3L // -3L
define "DecimalNegate": -(-3.3) // 3.3
define "QuantityNegate": -3.3 'mg' // -3.3 'mg'
define "NegateIsNull": -(null as Integer)

6.16. Precision

Signature:

Precision(argument Decimal) Integer
Precision(argument Date) Integer
Precision(argument DateTime) Integer
Precision(argument Time) Integer

Description:

The Precision function returns the number of digits of precision in the input value.

The function can be used with Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time values.

For Decimal values, the function returns the number of digits of precision after the decimal place in the input value.

Precision(1.58700) // 5

For Date and DateTime values, the function returns the number of digits of precision in the input value.

Precision(@2014) // 4
Precision(@2014-01-05T10:30:00.000) // 17
Precision(@T10:30) // 4
Precision(@T10:30:00.000) // 9

If the argument is null, the result is null.

6.17. Predecessor

Signature:

predecessor of<T>(argument T) T

Description:

The predecessor operator returns the predecessor of the argument. For example, the predecessor of 2 is 1. If the argument is already the minimum value for the type, a run-time error is thrown.

The predecessor operator is defined for the Integer, Long, Decimal, Quantity, Date, DateTime, and Time types.

For Integer, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting 1.

For Long, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting 1L.

For Decimal, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting the minimum precision value for the Decimal type, or 10-08.

For Date, DateTime, and Time values, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting a time-unit quantity for the lowest specified precision of the value. For example, if the DateTime is fully specified, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting 1 millisecond; if the DateTime is specified to the second, predecessor is equivalent to subtracting one second, etc.

For Quantity values, the predecessor is equivalent to subtracting 1 if the quantity is an integer, and the minimum precision value for the Decimal type if the quantity is a decimal. The units are unchanged.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

Note that implementations that support more precise values than the minimum required precision and scale for Decimal, DateTime, and Time values, the predecessor will reflect the minimum representable step size for the implementation.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the predecessor operator:

define "IntegerPredecessor": predecessor of 100 // 99
define "LongPredecessor": predecessor of 100L // 99L
define "DecimalPredecessor": predecessor of 1.0 // 0.99999999
define "DatePredecessor": predecessor of @2014-01-01 // @2013-12-31
define "PredecessorIsNull": predecessor of (null as Quantity)

6.18. Power

Signature:

^(argument Integer, exponent Integer) Integer
^(argument Long, exponent Long) Long
^(argument Decimal, exponent Decimal) Decimal

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The power (^) operator raises the first argument to the power given by the second argument.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal arguments, the Long argument will. be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the power operator:

define "IntegerPower": 2^3 // 8
define "IntegerPowerFun": Power(2, 3) // 8
define "LongPower": 2L^3L // 8L
define "DecimalPower": 2.5^2.0 // 6.25
define "NegateIsNull": 2.5^null

6.19. Round

Signature:

Round(argument Decimal) Decimal
Round(argument Decimal, precision Integer) Decimal

Description:

The Round operator returns the nearest whole number to its argument. The semantics of round are defined as a traditional round, meaning that a decimal value of 0.5 or higher will round to 1.

When invoked with an Integer argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

Precision determines the decimal place at which the rounding will occur. If precision is not specified or null, 0 is assumed.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Round operator:

define "IntegerRound": Round(1) // 1
define "DecimalRound": Round(3.14159, 3) // 3.142
define "RoundIsNull": Round(null)

6.20. Subtract

Signature:

-(left Integer, right Integer) Integer
-(left Long, right Long) Long
-(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
-(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The subtract (-) operator performs numeric subtraction of its arguments.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal arguments, the Long argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

When subtracting quantities, the dimensions of each quantity must be the same, but not necessarily the unit. For example, units of 'cm' and 'm' can be subtracted, but units of 'cm2' and 'cm' cannot. The unit of the result will be the most granular unit of either input. Attempting to operate on quantities with invalid units will result in a null. When a quantity has no units specified, it is treated as a quantity with the default unit ('1').

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the subtract operator:

define "IntegerSubtract": 2 - 1 // 1
define "LongSubtract": 2L - 1L // 1L
define "DecimalSubtract": 3.14 - 3.12 // 0.02
define "QuantitySubtract": 3.14 'mg' - 3.12 'mg' // 0.02 'mg'
define "QuantitySubtractError": 3.14 'cm' - 3.12 'cm2'
define "SubtractIsNull": 3 - null

6.21. Successor

Signature:

successor of<T>(argument T) T

Description:

The successor operator returns the successor of the argument. For example, the successor of 1 is 2. If the argument is already the maximum value for the type, a run-time error is thrown.

The successor operator is defined for the Integer, Long, Quantity, Decimal, Date, DateTime, and Time types.

For Integer, successor is equivalent to adding 1.

For Long, successor is equivalent to adding 1L.

For Decimal, successor is equivalent to adding the minimum precision value for the Decimal type, or 10-08.

For Date, DateTime and Time values, successor is equivalent to adding a time-unit quantity for the lowest specified precision of the value. For example, if the DateTime is fully specified, successor is equivalent to adding 1 millisecond; if the DateTime is specified to the second, successor is equivalent to adding one second, etc.

For Quantity values, the successor is equivalent to adding 1 if the quantity is an integer, and the minimum precision value for the Decimal type if the quantity is a decimal. The units are unchanged.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, the result is null.

Note that implementations that support more precise values than the minimum required precision and scale for Decimal, DateTime, and Time values, the successor will reflect the minimum representable step size for the implementation.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the successor operator:

define "IntegerSuccessor": successor of 100 // 101
define "LongSuccessor": successor of 100L // 101L
define "DecimalSuccessor": successor of 1.0 // 1.00000001
define "DateSuccessor": successor of @2014-01-01 // @2014-01-02
define "SuccessorIsNull": successor of (null as Quantity)

6.22. Truncate

Signature:

Truncate(argument Decimal) Integer

Description:

The Truncate operator returns the integer component of its argument.

When invoked with an Integer argument, the argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Truncate operator:

define "IntegerTruncate": Truncate(101) // 101
define "DecimalTruncate": Truncate(1.00000001) // 1
define "TruncateIsNull": Truncate(null)

6.23. Truncated Divide

Signature:

div(left Integer, right Integer) Integer
div(left Decimal, right Decimal) Decimal
div(left Long, right Long) Long
div(left Quantity, right Quantity) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status. The Quantity overload for this operator is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The div operator performs truncated division of its arguments.

When invoked with mixed Integer and Decimal or Long arguments, the Integer argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal or Long.

When invoked with mixed Long and Decimal arguments, the Long argument will be implicitly converted to Decimal

When invoked with mixed Integer or Decimal and Quantity arguments, the Integer or Decimal argument will be implicitly converted to Quantity.

For division operations involving quantities, the resulting quantity will have the appropriate unit.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the result of the operation cannot be represented, or the right argument is 0, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the div operator:

define "IntegerTruncatedDivide": 4 div 2 // 2
define "LongTruncatedDivide": 4L div 2L // 2L
define "DecimalTruncatedDivide": 4.14 div 2.06 // 2
define "TruncatedDivideIsNull": 3 div null

7. String Operators

7.1. Combine

Signature:

Combine(source List<String>) String
Combine(source List<String>, separator String) String

Description:

The Combine operator combines a list of strings, optionally separating each string with the given separator.

If either argument is null, or the source list is empty, the result is null.

For consistency with aggregate operator behavior, null elements in the input list are ignored.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Combine operator:

define "CombineList": Combine({ 'A', 'B', 'C' }) // 'ABC'
define "CombineWithSeparator": Combine({ 'A', 'B', 'C' }, ' ') // 'A B C'
define "CombineWithNulls": Combine({ 'A', 'B', 'C', null }) // 'ABC'

7.2. Concatenate

Signature:

+(left String, right String) String
&(left String, right String) String

Description:

The concatenate (+ or &) operator performs string concatenation of its arguments.

When using +, if either argument is null, the result is null.

When using &, null arguments are treated as an empty string ('').

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the concatenate operator:

define "ConcatenatePlus": 'John' + ' Doe' // 'John Doe'
define "ConcatenateAnd": 'John' & null & ' Doe' // 'John Doe'
define "ConcatenateFunction": Concatenate('John', ' Doe') // 'John Doe'
define "ConcatenateIsNull": 'John' + null + 'Doe' // null

7.3. EndsWith

Signature:

EndsWith(argument String, suffix String) Boolean

Description:

The EndsWith operator returns true if the given string ends with the given suffix.

If the suffix is the empty string, the result is true.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the EndsWith operator:

define "EndsWithIsTrue": EndsWith('ABC', 'C') // true
define "EndsWithIsFalse": EndsWith('ABC', 'Z') // false
define "EndsWithIsNull": EndsWith('ABC', null) // null

7.4. Indexer

Signature:

[](argument String, index Integer) String

Description:

The indexer ([]) operator returns the character at the indexth position in a string.

Indexes in strings are defined to be 0-based.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

If the index is greater than the length of the string being indexed, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the indexer operator:

define "Indexer2": 'ABCDE'[2] // 'C'
define "IndexerIsNull": 'ABCDE'[14] // null
define "IndexerIsAlsoNull": 'ABCDE'[null] // null

7.5. LastPositionOf

Signature:

LastPositionOf(pattern String, argument String) Integer

Description:

The LastPositionOf operator returns the 0-based index of the last appearance of the given pattern in the given string.

If the pattern is not found, the result is -1.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the LastPositionOf operator:

define "LastPositionOfFound": LastPositionOf('B', 'ABCDEDCBA') // 7
define "LastPositionOfNotFound": LastPositionOf('XYZ', 'ABCDE') // -1
define "LastPositionOfIsNull": LastPositionOf(null, 'ABCDE') // null

7.6. Length

Signature:

Length(argument String) Integer

Description:

The Length operator returns the number of characters in a string.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Length operator:

define "Length14": Length('ABCDE') // 5
define "LengthIsNull": Length(null as String) // null

7.7. Lower

Signature:

Lower(argument String) String

Description:

The Lower operator returns the given string with all characters converted to their lower case equivalents.

Note that the definition of lowercase for a given character is a locale-dependent determination, and is not specified by CQL. Implementations are expected to provide appropriate and consistent handling of locale for their environment.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Lower operator:

define "LowerCQL": Lower('ABCDE') // 'abcde'
define "LowerIsNull": Lower(null) // null

7.8. Matches

Signature:

Matches(argument String, pattern String) Boolean

Description:

The Matches operator returns true if the given string matches the given regular expression pattern. Regular expressions should function consistently, regardless of any culture- and locale-specific settings in the environment, should be case-sensitive, use single line mode, and allow Unicode characters.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

Platforms will typically use native regular expression implementations. These are typically fairly similar, but there will always be small differences. As such, CQL does not prescribe a particular dialect, but recommends the use of the PCRE dialect.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Matches operator:

define "MatchesTrue": Matches('1,2three', '\\d,\\d\\w+')
define "MatchesFalse": Matches('1,2three', '\\w+')
define "MatchesIsNull": Matches('12three', null)

7.9. PositionOf

Signature:

PositionOf(pattern String, argument String) Integer

Description:

The PositionOf operator returns the 0-based index of the given pattern in the given string.

If the pattern is not found, the result is -1.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the PositionOf operator:

define "PositionOfFound": PositionOf('B', 'ABCDEDCBA') // 1
define "PositionOfNotFound": PositionOf('Z', 'ABCDE') // -1
define "PositionOfIsNull": PositionOf(null, 'ABCDE') // null

7.10. ReplaceMatches

Signature:

Matches(argument String, pattern String, substitution String) String

Description:

The ReplaceMatches operator matches the given string using the given regular expression pattern, replacing each match with the given substitution. The substitution string may refer to identified match groups in the regular expression. Regular expressions should function consistently, regardless of any culture- and locale-specific settings in the environment, should be case-sensitive, use single line mode, and allow Unicode characters.

If any argument is null, the result is null.

Platforms will typically use native regular expression implementations. These are typically fairly similar, but there will always be small differences. As such, CQL does not prescribe a particular dialect, but recommends the use of the [PCRE](http://www.pcre.org) dialect.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ReplaceMatches operator:

define "ReplaceMatchesFound": ReplaceMatches('ABCDE', 'C', 'XYZ') // 'ABXYZDE'
define "ReplaceMatchesNotFound": ReplaceMatches('ABCDE', 'XYZ', '123') // 'ABCDE'
define "ReplaceMatchesIsNull": ReplaceMatches('ABCDE', 'C', null) // null

7.11. Split

Signature:

Split(stringToSplit String, separator String) List<String>

Description:

The Split operator splits a string into a list of strings using a separator.

If the stringToSplit argument is null, the result is null.

If the stringToSplit argument does not contain any appearances of the separator, the result is a list of strings containing one element that is the value of the stringToSplit argument.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Split operator:

define "SplitFound": Split('A B C', ' ') // { 'A', 'B', 'C' }
define "SplitNotFound": Split('A B C', ',') // { 'A B C' }
define "SplitIsNull": Split(null, ' ') // null

7.12. SplitOnMatches

Signature:

SplitOnMatches(stringToSplit String, separatorPattern String) List<String>

Description:

The SplitOnMatches operator splits a string into a list of strings using a separator that is defined by a regular expression pattern.

If the stringToSplit argument is null, the result is null.

The separatorPattern argument is interpreted with the same regular expression semantics as defined for the Matches operator.

If the stringToSplit argument does not contain any matches for the separatorPattern, the result is a list of strings containing one element that is the value of the stringToSplit argument.

7.13. StartsWith

Signature:

StartsWith(argument String, prefix String) Boolean

Description:

The StartsWith operator returns true if the given string starts with the given prefix.

If the prefix is the empty string, the result is true.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the StartsWith operator:

define "StartsWithIsTrue": StartsWith('ABCDE', 'ABC') // true
define "StartsWithIsFalse": StartsWith('ABCDE', 'XYZ') // false
define "StartsWithIsNull": StartsWith('ABCDE', null) // null

7.14. Substring

Signature:

Substring(stringToSub String, startIndex Integer) String
Substring(stringToSub String, startIndex Integer, length Integer) String

Description:

The Substring operator returns the string within stringToSub, starting at the 0-based index startIndex, and consisting of length characters.

If length is omitted, the substring returned starts at startIndex and continues to the end of stringToSub.

If stringToSub or startIndex is null, or startIndex is out of range, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Substring operator:

define "SubstringWithoutLength": Substring('ABCDE', 2) // 'CDE'
define "SubstringWithLength": Substring('ABCDE', 2, 1) // 'C'
define "SubstringIsNull": Substring('ABCDE', null) // null
define "SubstringIsAlsoNull": Substring('ABCDE', 14) // null

7.15. Upper

Signature:

Upper(argument String) String

Description:

The Upper operator returns the given string with all characters converted to their upper case equivalents.

Note that the definition of uppercase for a given character is a locale-dependent determination, and is not specified by CQL. Implementations are expected to provide appropriate and consistent handling of locale for their environment.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Upper operator:

define "UpperCQL": Upper('abcde') // 'ABCDE'
define "UpperIsNull": Upper(null) // null

8. Date and Time Operators

8.1. Add

Signature:

+(left Date, right Quantity) Date
+(left DateTime, right Quantity) DateTime
+(left Time, right Quantity) Time

Description:

The add (+) operator returns the value of the first argument, incremented by the time-valued quantity, respecting variable length periods for calendar years and months.

For Date values, the quantity unit must be one of: years, months, weeks, or days.

For DateTime values, the quantity unit must be one of: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

For Time values, the quantity unit must be one of: hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

Note that the quantity units may be specified in singular, plural, or UCUM form. However, to avoid the potential confusion of calendar-based date and time arithmetic with definite-duration date and time arithmetic, it is an error to attempt to add a definite-duration time-valued unit above days (and weeks), a calendar duration must be used.

For precisions above seconds, any decimal portion of the time-valued quantity is ignored, since date/time arithmetic above seconds is performed with calendar duration semantics.

For partial date/time values where the time-valued quantity is more precise than the partial date/time, the operation is performed by converting the time-based quantity to the most precise value specified in first argument (truncating any resulting decimal portion) and then adding it to the first argument. For example, the following addition:

DateTime(2014) + 24 months

This example results in the value DateTime(2016) even though the DateTime value is not specified to the level of precision of the time-valued quantity.

Note also that this means that if decimals appear in the time-valued quantities, the fractional component will be ignored. For example, the following addition:

DateTime(2014) + 18 months

This example results in the value DateTime(2015)

If either argument is null, the result is null.

8.2. After

Signature:

after _precision_ of(left Date, right Date) Boolean
after _precision_ of(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
after _precision_ of(left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The after-precision-of operator compares two Date, DateTime, or Time values to the specified precision to determine whether the first argument is the after the second argument. The comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is true; if the first value is less than the second, the result is false; if either input has no value for the precision, the comparison stops and the result is null; if the specified precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is false.

If no precision is specified, the comparison is performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime values as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the after-precision-of operator:

define "AfterIsTrue": @2012-02-01 after month of @2012-01-01
define "AfterIsFalse": @2012-01-01 after month of @2012-01-01
define "AfterUncertainIsNull": @2012-01-01 after month of @2012
define "AfterIsNull": @2012-01-01 after month of null

This operator is also defined for intervals, see the After (Intervals) operator for more information.

8.3. Before

Signature:

before _precision_ of(left Date, right Date) Boolean
before _precision_ of(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
before _precision_ of(left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The before-precision-of operator compares two Date, DateTime, or Time values to the specified precision to determine whether the first argument is the before the second argument. The comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is less than the second, the result is true; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is false; if either input has no value for the precision, the comparison stops and the result is null; if the specified precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is false.

If no precision is specified, the comparison is performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime values as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the before-precision-of operator:

define "BeforeIsTrue": @2012-01-01 before month of @2012-02-01
define "BeforeIsFalse": @2012-01-01 before month of @2012-01-01
define "BeforeUncertainIsNull": @2012 before month of @2012-02-01
define "BeforeIsNull": @2012-01-01 before month of null

This operator is also defined for intervals, see the Before (Intervals) operator for more information.

8.4. Date

Signature:

Date(year Integer) Date
Date(year Integer, month Integer) Date
Date(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer) Date

Description:

The Date operator constructs a date value from the given components.

At least one component must be specified, and no component may be specified at a precision below an unspecified precision. For example, month may be null, but if it is, day must be null as well.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Date operator:

define "DateValid": Date(2012, 1, 1)
define "DateInvalid": Date(2012, null, 1)

8.5. DateTime

Signature:

DateTime(year Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer,
  hour Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer,
  hour Integer, minute Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer,
  hour Integer, minute Integer, second Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer,
  hour Integer, minute Integer, second Integer, millisecond Integer) DateTime
DateTime(year Integer, month Integer, day Integer,
  hour Integer, minute Integer, second Integer, millisecond Integer,
  timezoneOffset Decimal) DateTime

Description:

The DateTime operator constructs a DateTime value from the given components.

At least one component other than timezoneOffset must be specified, and no component may be specified at a precision below an unspecified precision. For example, hour may be null, but if it is, minute, second, and millisecond must all be null as well.

Although the milliseconds are specified with a separate component, seconds and milliseconds are combined and represented as a Decimal for the purposes of comparison.

If timezoneOffset is not specified, it is defaulted to the timezone offset of the evaluation request.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the DateTime operator:

define "DateValid": DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, 30, 0, 0, -7)
define "DateInvalid": DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, null, 0, 0, -7)

8.6. Date and Time Component From

Signature:

_precision_ from(argument Date) Integer
_precision_ from(argument DateTime) Integer
_precision_ from(argument Time) Integer
timezoneoffset from(argument DateTime) Decimal
date from(argument DateTime) Date
time from(argument DateTime) Time

Description:

The component-from operator returns the specified component of the argument.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, extraction of a week component is not supported.

When extracting the Date or Time from a DateTime value, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp.

If the argument is null, or is not specified to the level of precision being extracted, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the component-from operator:

define "MonthFrom": month from DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, 30, 0, 0, -7) // 1
define "TimeZoneOffsetFrom": timezoneoffset from DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, 30, 0, 0, -7) // -7.0
define "DateFrom": date from DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, 30, 0, 0, -7) // @2012-01-01
define "TimeFrom": time from DateTime(2012, 1, 1, 12, 30, 0, 0, -7) // @T12:30:00.000-07:00
define "MonthFromIsNull": month from DateTime(2012)

8.7. Difference

Signature:

difference in _precision_ between(low Date, high Date) Integer
difference in _precision_ between(low DateTime, high DateTime) Integer
difference in _precision_ between(low Time, high Time) Integer

Description:

The difference-between operator returns the number of boundaries crossed for the specified precision between the first and second arguments. If the first argument is after the second argument, the result is negative. The result of this operation is always an integer; any fractional boundaries are dropped.

For Date values, precision must be one of: years, months, weeks, or days.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

For calculations involving weeks, Sunday is considered to be the first day of the week for the purposes of determining the number of boundaries crossed.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When computing the difference between DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the difference-between operator:

define "DifferenceInMonths": difference in months between @2012-01-01 and @2012-02-01 // 1
define "UncertainDifferenceInMonths": difference in months between @2012-01-02 and @2012 // [0, 11]
define "DifferenceIsNull": difference in months between @2012-01-01 and null

8.8. Duration

Signature:

_duration_ between(low Date, high Date) Integer
_duration_ between(low DateTime, high DateTime) Integer
_duration_ between(low Time, high Time) Integer

Description:

The duration-between operator returns the number of whole calendar periods for the specified precision between the first and second arguments. If the first argument is after the second argument, the result is negative. The result of this operation is always an integer; any fractional periods are dropped.

For Date values, duration must be one of: years, months, weeks, or days.

For DateTime values, duration must be one of: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

For Time values, duration must be one of: hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When computing the duration between DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the duration-between operator:

define "DurationInMonths": months between @2012-01-01 and @2012-02-01 // 1
define "UncertainDurationInMonths": months between @2012-01-02 and @2012 // [0, 10]
define "DurationIsNull": months between @2012-01-01 and null

8.9. Now

Signature:

Now() DateTime

Description:

The Now operator returns the date and time of the start timestamp associated with the evaluation request. Now is defined in this way for two reasons:

  1. The operation will always return the same value within any given evaluation, ensuring that the result of an expression containing Now will always return the same result.

  2. The operation will return the timestamp associated with the evaluation request, allowing the evaluation to be performed with the same timezone offset information as the data delivered with the evaluation request.

8.10. On Or After

Signature:

on or after _precision_ (left Date, right Date) Boolean
on or after _precision_ (left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
on or after _precision_ (left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The on or after operator for Date, DateTime, and Time values is a synonym for the same or after operator and is supported to enable natural phrasing. See the description of the Same Or After (Date, DateTime, or Time) operator.

Note that this operator can be invoked using either the on or after or the after or on syntax.

In timing phrases, the keyword same is a synonym for on.

8.11. On Or Before

Signature:

on or before _precision_ (left Date, right Date) Boolean
on or before _precision_ (left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
on or before _precision_ (left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The on or before operator for Date, DateTime, and Time values is a synonym for the same or before operator and is supported to enable natural phrasing. See the description of the Same Or Before (Date, DateTime, or Time) operator.

Note that this operator can be invoked using either the on or before or the before or on syntax.

In timing phrases, the keyword same is a synonym for on.

8.12. Same As

Signature:

same _precision_ as(left Date, right Date) Boolean
same _precision_ as(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
same _precision_ as(left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-as operator compares two Date, DateTime, or Time values to the specified precision for equality. The comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the values are different, the comparison stops and the result is false; if either input has no value for the precision, the comparison stops and the result is null; if the specified precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true.

If no precision is specified, the comparison is performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the same-precision-as operator:

define "SameAsTrue": @2012-01-01 same day as @2012-01-01
define "SameAsFalse": @2012-01-01 same day as @2012-01-02
define "UncertainSameAsIsNull": @2012-01-01 same day as @2012-01
define "SameAsIsNull": @2012-01-01 same day as null

This operator is also defined for intervals, see the Same As (Intervals) operator for more information.

8.13. Same Or After

Signature:

same _precision_ or after(left Date, right Date) Boolean
same _precision_ or after(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
same _precision_ or after(left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-or after operator compares two Date, DateTime, or Time values to the specified precision to determine whether the first argument is the same or after the second argument. The comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is true; if the first value is less than the second, the result is false; if either input has no value for the precision, the comparison stops and the result is null; if the specified precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true.

If no precision is specified, the comparison is performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

Note that in timing phrases, the keyword on may be used as a synonym for same for this operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the same-precision-or after operator:

define "SameOrAfterTrue": @2012-01-02 same day or after @2012-01-01
define "SameOrAfterFalse": @2012-01-01 same day or after @2012-01-02
define "UncertainSameOrAfterIsNull": @2012-01-02 same day or after @2012-01
define "SameOrAfterIsNull": @2012-01-01 same day or after null

This operator is also defined for intervals, see the Same Or After (Intervals) operator for more information.

8.14. Same Or Before

Signature:

same _precision_ or before(left Date, right Date) Boolean
same _precision_ or before(left DateTime, right DateTime) Boolean
same _precision_ or before(left Time, right Time) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-or before operator compares two Date, DateTime, or Time values to the specified precision to determine whether the first argument is the same or before the second argument. The comparison is performed by considering each precision in order, beginning with years (or hours for time values). If the values are the same, comparison proceeds to the next precision; if the first value is less than the second, the result is true; if the first value is greater than the second, the result is false; if either input has no value for the precision, the comparison stops and the result is null; if the specified precision has been reached, the comparison stops and the result is true.

If no precision is specified, the comparison is performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date values, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime values, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time values, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with both Date and DateTime inputs, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

Note that in timing phrases, the keyword on may be used as a synonym for same for this operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the same-precision-or before operator:

define "SameOrBeforeTrue": @2012-01-01 same day or before @2012-01-02
define "SameOrBeforeFalse": @2012-01-02 same day or before @2012-01-01
define "UncertainSameOrBeforeIsNull": @2012-01-02 same day or before @2012-01
define "SameOrBeforeIsNull": @2012-01-01 same day or before null

This operator is also defined for intervals, see the Same Or Before (Intervals) operator for more information.

8.15. Subtract

Signature:

-(left Date, right Quantity) Date
-(left DateTime, right Quantity) DateTime
-(left Time, right Quantity) Time

Description:

The subtract (-) operator returns the value of the given Date, DateTime, or Time, decremented by the time-valued quantity, respecting variable length periods for calendar years and months.

For Date values, the quantity unit must be one of: years, months, weeks, or days.

For DateTime values, the quantity unit must be one of: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

For Time values, the quantity unit must be one of: hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

Note that the quantity units may be specified in singular, plural or UCUM form. However, to avoid the potential confusion of calendar-based date and time arithmetic with definite-duration date and time arithmetic, it is an error to attempt to subtract a definite-duration time-valued unit above days (and weeks), a calendar duration must be used.

For precisions above seconds, any decimal portion of the time-valued quantity is ignored, since date/time arithmetic above seconds is performed with calendar duration semantics.

For partial date/time values where the time-valued quantity is more precise than the partial date/time, the operation is performed by converting the time-based quantity to the most precise value specified in the first argument (truncating any resulting decimal portion) and then subtracting it from the first argument. For example, the following subtraction:

DateTime(2014) - 24 months

This example results in the value DateTime(2012) even though the DateTime value is not specified to the level of precision of the time-valued quantity.

Note also that this means that if decimals appear in the time-valued quantities, the fractional component will be ignored. For example, the following subtraction:

DateTime(2014) - 18 months

This example results in the value DateTime(2013)

If either argument is null, the result is null.

8.16. Time

Signature:

Time(hour Integer) Time
Time(hour Integer, minute Integer) Time
Time(hour Integer, minute Integer, second Integer) Time
Time(hour Integer, minute Integer, second Integer, millisecond Integer) Time

Description:

The Time operator constructs a time value from the given components.

At least one component must be specified, and no component may be specified at a precision below an unspecified precision. For example, minute may be null, but if it is, second, and millisecond must all be null as well.

Although the milliseconds are specified with a separate component, seconds and milliseconds are combined and represented as a Decimal for the purposes of comparison.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Time operator:

define "TimeValid": Time(12, 30, 0, 0)
define "TimeInvalid": Time(12, null, 0, 0)

8.17. TimeOfDay

Signature:

TimeOfDay() Time

Description:

The TimeOfDay operator returns the time of day of the start timestamp associated with the evaluation request. See the Now operator for more information on the rationale for defining the TimeOfDay operator in this way.

8.18. Today

Signature:

Today() Date

Description:

The Today operator returns the date of the start timestamp associated with the evaluation request. See the Now operator for more information on the rationale for defining the Today operator in this way.

9. Interval Operators

9.1. After

Signature:

after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
after _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The after operator for intervals returns true if the first interval starts after the second one ends. In other words, if the starting point of the first interval is greater than the ending point of the second interval.

For the point-interval overload, the operator returns true if the given point is greater than the end of the interval.

For the interval-point overload, the operator returns true if the given interval starts after the given point.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the after operator:

define "AfterIsTrue": 5 after Interval[1, 4]
define "AfterIsFalse": Interval[1, 4] after 5
define "AfterIsNull": Interval[1, 4] after null

9.2. Before

Signature:

before _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
before _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
before _precision_ (left interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The before operator for intervals returns true if the first interval ends before the second one starts. In other words, if the ending point of the first interval is less than the starting point of the second interval.

For the point-interval overload, the operator returns true if the given point is less than the start of the interval.

For the interval-point overload, the operator returns true if the given interval ends before the given point.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the before operator:

define "BeforeIsTrue": 0 before Interval[1, 4]
define "BeforeIsFalse": Interval[1, 4] before 0
define "BeforeIsNull": Interval[1, 4] before null

9.3. Collapse

Signature:

collapse(argument List<Interval<T>>) List<Interval<T>>
collapse(argument List<Interval<T>>, per Quantity) List<Interval<T>>

Description:

The collapse operator returns the unique set of intervals that completely covers the ranges present in the given list of intervals. In other words, adjacent intervals within a sorted list are merged if they either overlap or meet.

Note that because the semantics for overlaps and meets are themselves defined in terms of the interval successor and predecessor operators, sets of Date-, DateTime-, or Time-based intervals that are only defined to a particular precision will calculate meets and overlaps at that precision. For example, a list of DateTime-based intervals where the boundaries are all specified to the hour will collapse at the hour precision, unless the collapse precision is overridden with the per argument.

Conceptually, the per argument to the collapse operator partitions the value-space for the operation into units of size 'per', and the intervals will be collapsed aligning with those partitions. Note that the 'per' partitions start from the starting boundary of the first input interval, ordered.

The per argument determines the precision at which the collapse is computed and must be a quantity-valued expression compatible with the interval point type. For numeric intervals, this means a quantity with the default unit '1' (not to be confused with the quantity value, which may be any valid positive decimal). For Date-, DateTime-, and Time-valued intervals, this means a quantity with a temporal unit (e.g., 'year', 'month', etc).

If the per argument is null, a per value will be constructed based on the coarsest precision of the boundaries of the intervals in the input set. For example, a list of DateTime-based intervals where the boundaries are a mixture of hours and minutes will collapse at the hour precision.

If the list of intervals is empty, the result is empty. If the list of intervals contains a single interval, the result is a list with that interval. If the list of intervals contains nulls, they will be excluded from the resulting list.

If the list argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the collapse operator:

define "Collapse1To9": collapse { Interval[1, 4], Interval[4, 8], Interval[7, 9] } // { Interval[1, 9] }
define "CollapseIsNull": collapse null

Informatively, the following pseudo-code illustrates a potential approach to implementation of the collapse operator with a per argument aligned to the starting boundary of the first input interval:

anchor = start of i[0]
for (n = 0; n < i.size; n++) {
  if (start of i[n] < anchor) {
    s1 = anchor;
  }
  else {
    w1 = ((start of i[n] - anchor) div per); // Use duration of precision
    if (w1 < start of i[n]) {
      w1 += 1;
    }
    s1 = anchor + w1 * per;
  }

  w1 = ((end of i[n] - s1) div per);
  e1 = s1 + w1 * per;

  overlap and meets on computed boundaries [s1, e1]

  anchor = e1
}

9.4. Contains

Signature:

contains _precision_ (argument Interval<T>, point T) Boolean

Description:

The contains operator for intervals returns true if the given point is equal to the starting or ending point of the interval, or greater than the starting point and less than the ending point. For open interval boundaries, exclusive comparison operators are used. For closed interval boundaries, if the interval boundary is null, the result of the boundary comparison is considered true.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If the first argument is null, the result is false. If the second argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the contains operator:

define "ContainsIsTrue": Interval[1, 5] contains 4
define "ContainsIsFalse": Interval[1, 5] contains 6
define "ContainsIsNull": Interval[1, 5] contains null

9.5. End

Signature:

end of(argument Interval<T>) T

Description:

The End operator returns the ending point of an interval.

If the high boundary of the interval is open, this operator returns the predecessor of the high value of the interval. Note that if the high value of the interval is null, the result is null.

If the high boundary of the interval is closed and the high value of the interval is not null, this operator returns the high value of the interval. Otherwise, the result is the maximum value of the point type of the interval.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the End operator:

define "EndOfInterval": end of Interval[1, 5] // 5
define "EndIsNull": end of (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.6. Ends

Signature:

ends _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The ends operator returns true if the first interval ends the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the starting point of the second, and the ending point of the first interval is equal to the ending point of the second.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the ends operator:

define "EndsIsTrue": Interval[0, 5] ends Interval[-1, 5]
define "EndsIsFalse": Interval[-1, 7] ends Interval[0, 7]
define "EndsIsNull": Interval[1, 5] ends null

9.7. Equal

Signature:

=(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The equal (=) operator for intervals returns true if and only if the intervals are over the same point type, and they have the same value for the starting and ending points of the intervals as determined by the Start and End operators.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equal operator:

define "EqualIsTrue": Interval[0, 5] = Interval[0, 5]
define "EqualIsFalse": Interval[-1, 7] = Interval[0, 7]
define "EqualIsNull": Interval[1, 5] = null

9.8. Equivalent

Signature:

~(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The equivalent (~) operator for intervals returns true if and only if the intervals are over the same point type, and the starting and ending points of the intervals as determined by the Start and End operators are equivalent.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equivalent operator:

define "EquivalentIsTrue": Interval[0, 5] ~ Interval[0, 5]
define "EquivalentIsAlsoTrue": Interval[1, null] ~ Interval[1, null]
define "EquivalentIsFalse": Interval[-1, 7] ~ Interval[0, 7]

9.9. Except

Signature:

except(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Interval<T>

Description:

The except operator for intervals returns the set difference of two intervals. More precisely, this operator returns the portion of the first interval that does not overlap with the second. Note that to avoid returning an improper interval, if the second argument is properly contained within the first and does not start or end it, this operator returns null.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the except operator:

define "Except": Interval[0, 5] except Interval[3, 7] // Interval[0, 2]
define "ExceptIsNull": null except Interval[-1, 7]

9.10. Expand

Signature:

expand(argument List<Interval<T>>, per Quantity) List<Interval<T>>
expand(argument Interval<T>, per Quantity) List<T>

The Interval<T> overload for expand is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The expand operator returns the set of intervals of size per for all the intervals in the input, or the list of points covering the range of the given interval, if invoked on a single interval.

The per argument determines the size of the resulting intervals and must be a quantity-valued expression compatible with the interval point type. For numeric intervals, this means a quantity with the default unit '1' (not to be confused with the quantity value, which may be any valid positive decimal). For Date-, DateTime-, and Time-valued intervals, this means a quantity with a temporal unit (e.g., 'year', 'month', etc).

Conceptually, the per argument to the expand operator partitions the value-space for the operation into units of size 'per', and the intervals will be expanded aligning with those partitions. Note that the 'per' partitions start from the starting boundary of the first input interval, ordered.

If the per argument is null, a per value will be constructed based on the coarsest precision of the boundaries of the intervals in the input set. For example, a list of DateTime-based intervals where the boundaries are a mixture of hours and minutes will expand at the hour precision.

More precisely, for each interval in the input, contribute all the intervals of size per that start on or after the lower boundary and end on or before the upper boundary, where the lower boundary for each interval contributed is obtained by successively adding the per to the lower boundary of the input interval.

For example:

expand { Interval[@2018-01-01, @2018-01-04] } per day
expand { Interval[@2018-01-01, @2018-01-04] } per 2 days

The following are the results of these examples:

{ Interval[@2018-01-01, @2018-01-01], Interval[@2018-01-02, @2018-01-02], Interval[@2018-01-03, @2018-01-03], Interval[@2018-01-04, @2018-01-04] }
{ Interval[@2018-01-01, @2018-01-02], Interval[@2018-01-03, @2018-01-04] }

If the interval boundaries are more precise than the per quantity, the more precise values will be truncated to the precision specified by the per quantity. In these cases, the resulting list of intervals may be more broad than the input range due to this truncation. For example:

expand { Interval[@T10:00, @T12:30] } per hour
expand { Interval[10.0, 12.5] } per 1

The above examples would result in:

{ Interval[@T10, @T10], Interval[@T11, @T11], Interval[@T12, @T12] }
{ Interval[10, 10], Interval[11, 11], Interval[12, 12] }

If the interval boundaries are less precise than the per quantity, for dates and times where the lack of precision indicates uncertainty, the interval will not contribute any results to the output, because adding the per to the lower boundary of the input interval results in null. For numeric intervals, adding the per to the lower boundary produces a more precise value for the output intervals. For example:

expand { Interval[@T10, @T10] } per minute
expand { Interval[10, 10] } per 0.1

The above examples would result in:

{ }
{ Interval[10.0, 10.0], Interval[10.1, 10.1], ..., Interval[10.9, 10.9] }

For intervals of quantities, the semantics of quantity arithmetic and comparison apply, including unit conversion and compatible unit conversion. As with all unit operations, implementations are required to respect units, but are not required to support unit conversion.

If the input argument is an interval, rather than a list of intervals, the result is a list of points, rather than a list of intervals. In this case, the calculation is performed the same way, but the starting point of each resulting interval is returned, rather than the interval. For example:

expand Interval[1, 10]
expand Interval[1, 10] per 2

The above examples would result in:

{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 }
{ 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 }

If the list of intervals is empty, the result is empty. If the list of intervals contains nulls, they will be excluded from the resulting list.

If the list argument is null, the result is null.

For intervals with null boundaries (intervals with an undefined start or end date), if the boundary is open (e.g., Interval[0, null)), the interval will not contribute any results to the output. If the boundary is closed (e.g., Interval[0, null]), in theory the interval would contribute all intervals to the beginning or ending of the domain. In practice, because such an expansion is potentially too expensive to compute, and implementations are allowed to not return results for such an interval.

9.11. In

Signature:

in _precision_ (point T, argument Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The in operator for intervals returns true if the given point is equal to the starting or ending point of the interval, or greater than the starting point and less than the ending point. For open interval boundaries, exclusive comparison operators are used. For closed interval boundaries, if the interval boundary is null, the result of the boundary comparison is considered true.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If the first argument is null, the result is null. If the second argument is null, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the in operator:

define "InIsTrue": 3 in Interval[0, 5]
define "InIsFalse": -1 in Interval[0, 7]
define "InIsAlsoFalse": 3 in (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.12. Includes

Signature:

includes _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
includes _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The includes operator for intervals returns true if the first interval completely includes the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first interval is less than or equal to the starting point of the second interval, and the ending point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the ending point of the second interval.

For the point overload, this operator is a synonym for the contains operator, and will return false is the first argument is null, and null if the second argument is null.

For the interval overload, if either argument is null, the result is null.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the includes operator:

define "IncludesIsTrue": Interval[-1, 5] includes Interval[0, 5]
define "IncludesIsFalse": Interval[-1, 5] includes 6
define "IncludesIsNull": Interval[-1, 5] includes null

9.13. Included In

Signature:

included in _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
included in _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The included in operator for intervals returns true if the first interval is completely included in the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the starting point of the second interval, and the ending point of the first interval is less than or equal to the ending point of the second interval.

For the point overload, this operator is a synonym for the in operator, and will return null if the first argument is null, and false if the second argument is null.

For the interval overload, if either argument is null, the result is null.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

Note that during is a synonym for included in and may be used to invoke the same operation wherever included in may appear.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the included in operator:

define "IncludedInIsTrue": Interval[1, 5] included in Interval[0, 5]
define "IncludedInIsFalse": -1 during Interval[0, 7]
define "IncludedInIsNull": 3 included in (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.14. Intersect

Signature:

intersect(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Interval<T>

Description:

The intersect operator for intervals returns the intersection of two intervals. More precisely, the operator returns the interval that defines the overlapping portion of both arguments. If the arguments do not overlap, this operator returns null.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the intersect operator:

define "Intersect": Interval[1, 5] intersect Interval[3, 7] // Interval[3, 5]
define "IntersectIsNull": Interval[3, 5] intersect (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.15. Meets

Signature:

meets _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
meets before _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
meets after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The meets operator returns true if the first interval ends immediately before the second interval starts, or if the first interval starts immediately after the second interval ends. In other words, if the ending point of the first interval is equal to the predecessor of the starting point of the second, or if the starting point of the first interval is equal to the successor of the ending point of the second.

The meets before operator returns true if the first interval ends immediately before the second interval starts, while the meets after operator returns true if the first interval starts immediately after the second interval ends.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that Date-, DateTime-, or Time-based intervals with partially specified boundaries will "meet" at the precision of the boundaries, not the finest precision for the point type. For example:

define "MeetsAtHours": Interval[@T03, @T04] meets Interval[@T05, @T06]

The MeetsAtHours expression returns true because the meets operation is performed at the hour precision.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the meets, meets before, and meets after operators:

define "MeetsIsTrue": Interval[6, 10] meets Interval[0, 5]
define "MeetsBeforeIsTrue": Interval[-5, -1] meets before Interval[0, 5]
define "MeetsAfterIsFalse": Interval[6, 10] meets after Interval[0, 7]
define "MeetsIsNull": Interval[6, 10] meets (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.16. Not Equal

Signature:

!=(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) : Boolean

Description:

The not equal (!=) operator for intervals returns true if its arguments are not the same value.

The not equal operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equal operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equal operator:

define "NotEqualIsFalse": Interval[0, 5] != Interval[0, 5]
define "NotEqualIsTrue": Interval[-1, 7] != Interval[0, 7]
define "NotEqualIsNull": Interval[1, 5] != null

9.17. Not Equivalent

Signature:

!~(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) : Boolean

Description:

The not equivalent (!~) operator for intervals returns true if its arguments are not equivalent.

The not equivalent operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equivalent operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equivalent operator:

define "NotEquivalentIsFalse": Interval[0, 5] !~ Interval[0, 5]
define "NotEquivalentIsAlsoFalse": Interval[1, null] !~ Interval[1, null]
define "NotEquivalentIsTrue": Interval[-1, 7] !~ Interval[0, 7]

9.18. On Or After

Signature:

on or after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
on or after _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
on or after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The on or after operator for intervals is a synonym for the same or after operator and is supported to enable natural phrasing. See the description of the Same Or After (Intervals) operator.

Note that this operator can be invoked using either the on or after or the after or on syntax.

In timing phrases, the keyword same is a synonym for on.

9.19. On Or Before

Signature:

on or before _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
on or before _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
on or before _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The on or before operator for Date-, DateTime-, or Time-based intervals is a synonym for the same or before operator and is supported to enable natural phrasing. See the description of the Same Or Before (Intervals) operator.

Note that this operator can be invoked using either the on or before or the before or on syntax.

In timing phrases, the keyword same is a synonym for on.

9.20. Overlaps

Signature:

overlaps _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
overlaps before _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
overlaps after _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The overlaps operator returns true if the first interval overlaps the second. More precisely, if the starting or ending point of either interval is in the other, or if the ending point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the starting point of the second interval, and the starting point of the first interval is less than or equal to the ending point of the second interval.

The operator overlaps before returns true if the first interval overlaps the second and starts before it, while the overlaps after operator returns true if the first interval overlaps the second and ends after it.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the overlaps, overlaps before, and overlaps after operators:

define "OverlapsIsTrue": Interval[0, 4] overlaps Interval[1, 4]
define "OverlapsBeforeIsTrue": Interval[0, 4] overlaps before Interval[1, 4]
define "OverlapsAfterIsFalse": Interval[0, 4] overlaps after Interval[1, 4]
define "OverlapsIsNull": Interval[6, 10] overlaps (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.21. Point From

Signature:

point from(argument Interval<T>) : T

Description:

The point from operator extracts the single point from a unit interval. If the argument is not a unit interval, a run-time error is thrown.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the point from operator:

define "PointFrom": point from Interval[4, 4] // 4
define "PointFromExclusive": point from Interval[4, 5) // 4
define "PointFromError": point from Interval[1, 4] // Error
define "PointFromIsNull": point from (null as Interval<Integer>)

Note that the point from operator may only be used on a unit interval, or an interval containing a single point. Attempting to extract a point from an interval with a size greater than one, as in the PointFromError example above, will result in a run-time error.

9.22. Properly Includes

Signature:

properly includes _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
properly includes _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The properly includes operator for intervals returns true if the first interval completely includes the second and the first interval is strictly larger than the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first interval is less than or equal to the starting point of the second interval, and the ending point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the ending point of the second interval, and they are not the same interval.

For the point overload, this operator returns true if the interval contains (i.e. includes) the point, and the interval is not a unit interval containing only the point.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the properly includes operator:

define "ProperlyIncludesIsTrue": Interval[-1, 5] properly includes Interval[0, 5]
define "ProperlyIncludesIsFalse": Interval[-1, 5] properly includes Interval[-1, 5]
define "ProperlyIncludesIsNull": Interval[-1, 5] properly includes null

9.23. Properly Included In

Signature:

properly included in _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
properly included in _precision_ (left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The properly included in operator for intervals returns true if the first interval is completely included in the second and the first interval is strictly smaller than the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first interval is greater than or equal to the starting point of the second interval, and the ending point of the first interval is less than or equal to the ending point of the second interval, and they are not the same interval.

For the point overload, this operator returns true if the point is in (i.e. included in) the interval, and the interval is not a unit interval containing only the point.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that during is a synonym for included in.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the properly included in operator:

define "ProperlyIncludedInIsTrue": Interval[1, 5] properly included in Interval[0, 5]
define "ProperlyIncludedInIsFalse": Interval[0, 7] properly during Interval[0, 7]
define "ProperlyIncludedInIsNull": Interval[1, 5] properly included in (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.24. Same As

Signature:

same _precision_ as(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-as operator for intervals returns true if the two intervals start and end at the same value, using the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries, and for Date, DateTime, or Time value, performing the comparisons at the specified precision, as described in the Same As operator for Date, DateTime, or Time values.

If no precision is specified, comparisons are performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time-based intervals, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with a mixture of Date- and DateTime-based intervals, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime values as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

For comparisons involving date or time values with imprecision, note that the result of the comparison may be null, depending on whether the values involved are specified to the level of precision used for the comparison.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

9.25. Same Or After

Signature:

same _precision_ or after(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
same _precision_ or after(left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
same _precision_ or after(left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-or after operator for intervals returns true if the first interval starts on or after the second one ends, using the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries, and for Date, DateTime, or Time values, performing the comparisons at the specified precision, as described in the Same or After (Date, DateTime, or Time) operator for Date, DateTime, or Time values.

If no precision is specified, comparisons are performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time-based intervals, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with a mixture of Date-based and DateTime-based intervals, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime values as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When this operator is called with a mixture of point values and intervals, the point values are implicitly converted to an interval starting and ending on the given point value.

For comparisons involving date or time intervals with imprecision, note that the result of the comparison may be null, depending on whether the values involved are specified to the level of precision used for the comparison.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

Note that in timing phrases, the keyword on may be used as a synonym for same for this operator.

9.26. Same Or Before

Signature:

same _precision_ or before(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean
same _precision_ or before(left T, right Interval<T>) Boolean
same _precision_ or before(left Interval<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The same-precision-or before operator returns true if the first interval ends on or before the second one starts, using the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries, and for Date, DateTime, or Time values, performing the comparisons at the specified precision, as described in the Same or Before (Date, DateTime, or Time) operator for Date, DateTime, or Time values.

If no precision is specified, comparisons are performed beginning with years (or hours for time values) and proceeding to the finest precision specified in either input.

For Date-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, or day.

For DateTime-based intervals, precision must be one of: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

For Time-based intervals, precision must be one of: hour, minute, second, or millisecond.

Note specifically that due to variability in the way week numbers are determined, comparisons involving weeks are not supported.

When this operator is called with a mixture of Date- and DateTime-based intervals, the Date values will be implicitly converted to DateTime values as defined by the ToDateTime operator.

When this operator is called with a mixture of point values and intervals, the point values are implicitly converted to an interval starting and ending on the given point value.

For comparisons involving date or time values with imprecision, note that the result of the comparison may be null, depending on whether the values involved are specified to the level of precision used for the comparison.

When comparing DateTime values with different timezone offsets, implementations should normalize to the timezone offset of the evaluation request timestamp, but only when the comparison precision is hours, minutes, seconds, or milliseconds.

If either or both arguments are null, the result is null.

Note that in timing phrases, the keyword on may be used as a synonym for same for this operator.

9.27. Size

Signature:

Size(argument Interval<T>) T

Description:

The Size operator returns the size of an interval. The result of this operator is equivalent to invoking: (end of argument start of argument) + point-size, where point-size is determined by successor of minimum T - minimum T.

Note that because CQL defines duration and difference operations for date and time valued intervals, size is not defined for intervals of these types.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Size operator:

define "SizeTest": Size(Interval[3, 7]) // 5, i.e. the interval contains 5 points
define "SizeTestEquivalent": Size(Interval[3, 8)) // 5, i.e. the interval contains 5 points
define "SizeIsNull": Size(null as Interval<Integer>) // null

9.28. Start

Signature:

start of(argument Interval<T>) T

Description:

The Start operator returns the starting point of an interval.

If the low boundary of the interval is open, this operator returns the successor of the low value of the interval. Note that if the low value of the interval is null, the result is null.

If the low boundary of the interval is closed and the low value of the interval is not null, this operator returns the low value of the interval. Otherwise, the result is the minimum value of the point type of the interval.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Start operator:

define "StartOfInterval": start of Interval[1, 5] // 1
define "StartIsNull": start of (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.29. Starts

Signature:

starts _precision_ (left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Boolean

Description:

The starts operator returns true if the first interval starts the second. More precisely, if the starting point of the first is equal to the starting point of the second interval and the ending point of the first interval is less than or equal to the ending point of the second interval.

This operator uses the semantics described in the Start and End operators to determine interval boundaries.

If precision is specified and the point type is a Date, DateTime, or Time type, comparisons used in the operation are performed at the specified precision.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the starts operator:

define "StartsIsTrue": Interval[0, 5] starts Interval[0, 7]
define "StartsIsFalse": Interval[0, 7] starts Interval[0, 6]
define "StartsIsNull": Interval[1, 5] starts null

9.30. Union

Signature:

union(left Interval<T>, right Interval<T>) Interval<T>

Description:

The union operator for intervals returns the union of the intervals. More precisely, the operator returns the interval that starts at the earliest starting point in either argument, and ends at the latest starting point in either argument. If the arguments do not overlap or meet, this operator returns null.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the union operator:

define "Union": Interval[1, 5] union Interval[3, 7] // Interval[1, 7]
define "UnionIsNull": Interval[3, 5] union (null as Interval<Integer>)

9.31. Width

Signature:

width of(argument Interval<T>) T

Description:

The width operator returns the width of an interval. The result of this operator is equivalent to invoking: (end of argument start of argument).

Note that because CQL defines duration and difference operations for date and time valued intervals, width is not defined for intervals of these types.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the width operator:

define "Width": width of Interval[3, 7] // 4
define "WidthIsNull": width of (null as Interval<Integer>) // null
define "NullInterval": width of Interval[0, null) //null

10. List Operators

Note that the operators in this section may all be invoked with singleton arguments if the list promotion feature is enabled. See the Promotion and Demotion section for more information.

10.1. Contains

Signature:

contains(argument List<T>, element T) Boolean

Description:

The contains operator for lists returns true if the given element is in the list using equality semantics.

If the first argument is null, the result is false. If the second argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the contains operator:

define "ContainsIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } contains 5
define "ContainsIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } contains 4
define "ContainsIsAlsoFalse": null contains 4
define "ContainsIsNull": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } contains null

10.2. Distinct

Signature:

distinct(argument List<T>) List<T>

Description:

The distinct operator returns the given list with duplicates eliminated using equality semantics.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The operator uses equality comparison semantics as defined in the Equal operator, with the exception that nulls are considered equal for the purposes of distinct determination. This means that multiple nulls in the input will result in a single null in the output.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the distinct operator:

define "Distinct": distinct { 1, 3, 3, 5, 5 } // { 1, 3, 5 }
define "DistinctIsNull": distinct null // null

10.3. Equal

Signature:

=(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The equal (=) operator for lists returns true if and only if the lists have the same element type, and have the same elements by value, in the same order.

If either argument is null, or contains null elements, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equal operator:

define "EqualIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } = { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "EqualIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } = { 1, 3, 5 }
define "EqualIsNull": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } = null

10.4. Equivalent

Signature:

~(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The equivalent (~) operator for lists returns true if and only if the lists contain elements of the same type, have the same number of elements, and for each element in the lists, in order, the elements are equivalent.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equivalent operator:

define "EquivalentIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } ~ { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "EquivalentIsAlsoTrue": { 1, 3, 5, null } ~ { 1, 3, 5, null }
define "EquivalentIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } ~ { 1, 3, 5 }

10.5. Except

Signature:

except(left List<T>, right List<T>) List<T>

Description:

The except operator returns the set difference of two lists. More precisely, the operator returns a list with the elements that appear in the first operand that do not appear in the second operand.

This operator uses equality semantics to determine whether two elements are the same for the purposes of computing the difference, with the exception that null elements are considered equal.

The operator is defined with set semantics, meaning that each element will appear in the result at most once, and that there is no expectation that the order of the inputs will be preserved in the results.

If the first argument is null, the result is null. If the second argument is null, the operation is performed as though the second argument was an empty list.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the except operator:

define "Except": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } except { 1, 3 } // { 5, 7 }
define "ExceptLeft": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } except null // { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "ExceptWithNull": { 1, 3, 5, 7, null } except { 1, 3, null } // { 5, 7 }
define "ExceptIsNull": null except { 1, 3, 5 }

10.6. Exists

Signature:

exists(argument List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The exists operator returns true if the list contains any non-null elements.

If the argument is null, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the exists operator:

define "ExistsIsTrue": exists { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "ExistsIsFalse": exists { }
define "ExistsIsAlsoFalse": exists { null }
define "ExistsIsAlsoAlsoFalse": exists null

10.7. Flatten

Signature:

flatten(argument List<List<T>>) List<T>

Description:

The flatten operator flattens a list of lists into a single list.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the flatten operator:

define "Flatten": flatten { { 1, 2 }, { 3, 4, 5 } } // { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }
define "FlattenIsNull": flatten null

10.8. First

Signature:

First(argument List<T>) T

Description:

The First operator returns the first element in a list. The operator is equivalent to invoking the indexer with an index of 0.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the First operator:

define "First1": First({ 1, 2, 5 }) // 1
define "FirstIsNull": First(null)

10.9. In

Signature:

in(element T, argument List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The in operator for lists returns true if the given element is in the given list using equality semantics.

If the first argument is null, the result is null. If the second argument is null, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the in operator:

define "InIsTrue": 5 in { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "InIsFalse": 5 in { 1, 3 }
define "InIsAlsoFalse": 5 in null
define "InIsNull": null in { 1, 3, 5, null }

10.10. Includes

Signature:

includes(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean
includes(left List<T>, right T) Boolean

Description:

The includes operator for lists returns true if the first list contains every element of the second list using equality semantics.

For the singleton overload, this operator is a synonym for the contains operator, and will return false if the first argument is null, and null if the second argument is null.

For the list overload, if either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that the order of elements does not matter for the purposes of determining inclusion.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the includes operator:

define "IncludesIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } includes 5
define "IncludesIsNull": { 1, 3, 5, null } includes null
define "IncludesIsFalse": { 1, 3 } includes { 1, 3, 5 }
define "IncludesIsAlsoNull": null includes { 1, 3, 5 }

10.11. Included In

Signature:

included in(left List<T>, right list<T>) Boolean
included in(left T, right list<T>) Boolean

Description:

The included in operator for lists returns true if every element of the first list is in the second list using equality semantics.

For the singleton overload, this operator is a synonym for the in operator, and will return null if the first argument is null, and false if the second argument is null.

For the list overload, if either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that the order of elements does not matter for the purposes of determining inclusion.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the included in operator:

define "IncludedInIsTrue": 5 included in { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "IncludedInIsNull": null included in { 1, 3, 5 }
define "IncludedInIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5 } included in { 1, 3 }
define "IncludedInIsAlsoNull": { 1, 3, 5, null } included in null

10.12. Indexer

Signature:

[](argument List<T>, index Integer) T

Description:

The indexer ([]) operator returns the element at the indexth position in a list.

Indexes in lists are defined to be 0-based.

If the index is less than 0, or greater than the number of elements in the list, the result is null.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the indexer operator:

define "Indexer": { 1, 3, 5, 7 }[1] // 3
define "IndexerIsNull": { 1, 3, 5 }[-1]
define "IndexerIsAlsoNull": (null as List<Integer>)[0]

10.13. IndexOf

Signature:

IndexOf(argument List<T>, element T) Integer

Description:

The IndexOf operator returns the 0-based index of the given element in the given source list using equality semantics.

If the list is empty, or no element is found, the result is -1.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the IndexOf operator:

define "IndexOfFound": IndexOf({ 1, 3, 5, 7 }, 5) // 2
define "IndexOfNotFound": IndexOf({ 1, 3, 5, 7 }, 4) // -1
define "IndexOfIsNull": IndexOf(null, 4)

10.14. Intersect

Signature:

intersect(left List<T>, right List<T>) List<T>

Description:

The intersect operator for lists returns the intersection of two lists. More precisely, the operator returns a list containing only the elements that appear in both lists.

This operator uses equality semantics to determine whether or not two elements are the same, with the exception that null elements are considered equal for the purposes of the intersection.

The operator is defined with set semantics, meaning that each element will appear in the result at most once, and that there is no expectation that the order of the inputs will be preserved in the results.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the intersect operator:

define "Intersect": { 1, 3, 5 } intersect { 3, 5, 7 } // { 3, 5 }
define "IntersectWithNull": { null, 1, 3, 5 } intersect { null, 3, 5, 7 } // { null, 3, 5 }
define "IntersectIsNull": { 1, 3, 5 } intersect null

10.15. Last

Signature:

Last(argument List<T>) T

Description:

The Last operator returns the last element in a list. In a list of length N, the operator is equivalent to invoking the indexer with an index of N - 1.

If the argument is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Last operator:

define "Last5": Last({ 1, 3, 5 }) // 5
define "LastIsNull": Last(null)

10.16. Length

Signature:

Length(argument List<T>) Integer

Description:

The Length operator returns the number of elements in a list.

If the argument is null, the result is 0.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Length operator:

define "Length3": Length({ 1, 3, 5 }) // 3
define "Length0": Length(null as List<Integer>)

10.17. Not Equal

Signature:

!=(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The not equal (!=) operator for lists returns true if its arguments are not the same value.

The not equal operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equal operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equal operator:

define "NotEqualIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } != { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "NotEqualIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } != { 1, 3, 5 }
define "NotEqualIsNull": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } != null

10.18. Not Equivalent

Signature:

!~(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The not equivalent (!~) operator for lists returns true if its arguments are not equivalent.

The not equivalent operator is a shorthand for invocation of logical negation (not) of the equivalent operator.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the not equivalent operator:

define "NotEquivalentIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } !~ { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "NotEquivalentIsAlsoFalse": { 1, 3, 5, null } !~ { 1, 3, 5, null }
define "NotEquivalentIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } !~ { 1, 3, 5 }

10.19. Properly Includes

Signature:

properly includes(left List<T>, right List<T>) Boolean
properly includes(left T, right List<T>) Boolean

Description:

The properly includes operator for lists returns true if the first list contains every element of the second list, and the first list is strictly larger than the second list.

For the element overload, this operator returns true if the list contains (i.e. includes) the element, and it is not the only element in the list.

This operator uses equality semantics to determine whether or not two elements are the same.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that the order of elements does not matter for the purposes of determining inclusion.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the properly includes operator:

define "ProperlyIncludesIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5, 7 } properly includes { 1, 3, 5 }
define "ProperlyIncludesIsAlsoTrue": { 1, 3, 5, null } properly includes null
define "ProperlyIncludesIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5 } properly includes { 1, 3, 5 }
define "ProperlyIncludesIsAlsoFalse": null properly includes { 1, 3, 5 }

10.20. Properly Included In

Signature:

properly included in(left List<T>, right list<T>) Boolean

Description:

The properly included in operator for lists returns true if every element of the first list is in the second list and the first list is strictly smaller than the second list.

For the element overload, this operator returns true if the element is in (i.e. included in) the list and it is not the only element in the list.

This operator uses equality semantics to determine whether or not two elements are the same.

If either argument is null, the result is null.

Note that the order of elements does not matter for the purposes of determining inclusion.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the properly included in operator:

define "ProperlyIncludedInIsTrue": { 1, 3, 5 } properly included in { 1, 3, 5, 7 }
define "ProperlyIncludedInIsAlsoTrue": null properly included in { 1, 3, 5 }
define "ProperlyIncludedInIsFalse": { 1, 3, 5 } properly included in { 1, 3, 5 }
define "ProperlyIncludedInIsAlsoFalse": { 1, 3, 5, null } properly included in null

10.21. Singleton From

Signature:

singleton from(argument List<T>) T

Description:

The singleton from operator extracts a single element from the source list. If the source list is empty, the result is null. If the source list contains one element, that element is returned. If the list contains more than one element, a run-time error is thrown.

If the source list is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the singleton from operator:

define "SingletonFrom": singleton from { 1 } // 1
define "SingletonFromError": singleton from { 1, 3, 5 }
define "SingletonFromIsNull": singleton from (null as List<Integer>)

10.22. Skip

Signature:

Skip(argument List<T>, number Integer) List<T>

Description:

The Skip operator returns the elements in the list, skipping the first number elements. If the list has less number elements, the result is empty.

If the source list is null, the result is null.

If the number of elements is null, the result is the entire list, no elements are skipped.

If the number of elements is less than zero, the result is an empty list.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Skip operator:

define "Skip2": Skip({ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, 2) // { 3, 4, 5 }
define "SkipNull": Skip({ 1, 3, 5 }, null) // { 1, 3, 5 }
define "SkipEmpty": Skip({ 1, 3, 5 }, -1) // { }
define "SkipIsNull": Skip(null, 2)

10.23. Tail

Signature:

Tail(argument List<T>) List<T>

Description:

The Tail operator returns all but the first element from the given list. If the list is empty, the result is empty.

If the source list is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Tail operator:

define "Tail234": Tail({ 1, 2, 3, 4 }) // { 2, 3, 4 }
define "TailEmpty": Tail({ }) // { }
define "TailIsNull": Tail(null)

10.24. Take

Signature:

Take(argument List<T>, number Integer) List<T>

Description:

The Take operator returns the first number elements from the given list. If the list has less than number elements, the result only contains the elements in the list.

If the source list is null, the result is null.

If number is null, or 0 or less, the result is an empty list.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Take operator:

define "Take2": Take({ 1, 2, 3, 4 }, 2) // { 1, 2 }
define "TakeTooMany": Take({ 1, 2 }, 3) // { 1, 2 }
define "TakeEmpty": Take({ 1, 2, 3, 4 }, null) // { }
define "TakeIsNull": Take(null, 2)

10.25. Union

Signature:

union(left List<T>, right List<T>) List<T>

Description:

The union operator for lists returns a list with all unique elements from both arguments.

The union operator is defined as a set operation, meaning that duplicates are eliminated; if an element appears in both sources, that element will only appear once in the resulting list. In addition, there is no expectation that the order of elements in the inputs will be preserved in the results.

This operator uses equality semantics with the exception that null elements are considered equal.

If either argument is null, it is considered an empty list for the purposes of evaluating the union.

Note that the union operator can also be invoked with the symbolic operator (|).

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the union operator:

define "Union": { 1, 2, 3 } union { 4, 5 } // { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }
define "UnionAlternateSyntax": { 1, 2, 3 } | { 4, 5 } // { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }
define "UnionWithNull": null union { 4, 5 } // { 4, 5 }

11. Aggregate Functions

11.1. AllTrue

Signature:

AllTrue(argument List<Boolean>) Boolean

Description:

The AllTrue operator returns true if all the non-null elements in the source are true.

If the source contains no non-null elements, true is returned.

If the source is null, the result is true.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the AllTrue operator:

define "AllTrueIsTrue": AllTrue({ true, null, true })
define "AllTrueIsAlsoTrue": AllTrue({ null, null, null })
define "AllTrueIsTrueWhenNull": AllTrue(null)
define "AllTrueIsFalse": AllTrue({ true, false, null })

11.2. AnyTrue

Signature:

AnyTrue(argument List<Boolean>) Boolean

Description:

The AnyTrue operator returns true if any non-null element in the source is true.

If the source contains no non-null elements, false is returned.

If the source is null, the result is false.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the AnyTrue operator:

define "AnyTrueIsTrue": AnyTrue({ true, false, null })
define "AnyTrueIsFalse": AnyTrue({ false, false, null })
define "AnyTrueIsAlsoFalse": AnyTrue({ null, null, null })
define "AnyTrueIsFalseWhenNull": AnyTrue(null)

11.3. Avg

Signature:

Avg(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Avg(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The Avg operator returns the average of the non-null elements in the source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Avg operator:

define "DecimalAvg": Avg({ 5.5, 4.7, 4.8 }) // 5.0
define "QuantityAvg": Avg({ 5.5 'cm', 4.7 'cm', 4.8 'cm' }) // 5.0 'cm'
define "AvgIsNull": Avg(null as List<Decimal>)

11.4. Count

Signature:

Count(argument List<T>) Integer

Description:

The Count operator returns the number of non-null elements in the source. If the list contains no non-null elements, the result is 0. If the list is null, the result is 0.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Count operator:

define "Count5": Count({ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }) // 5
define "Count0": Count({ null, null, null }) // 0
define "CountNull0": Count(null as List<Decimal>) // 0

11.5. GeometricMean

Signature:

GeometricMean(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal

Description:

The GeometricMean operator returns the geometric mean of the non-null elements in the source. Geometric mean is defined as the Nth root of the geometric product of the elements. In other words:

GeometricMean(X) = Power(Product(X), 1 / Count(X))

If the source contains no non-null elements, the result is null.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the GeometricMean operator:

define "GeometricMean4": GeometricMean({ 2.0, 8.0 }) // 4.0
define "GeometricMeanIsNull": GeometricMean({ null, null, null })
define "GeometricMeanIsAlsoNull": GeometricMean(null as List<Decimal>)

11.6. Max

Signature:

Max(argument List<Integer>) Integer
Max(argument List<Long>) Long
Max(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Max(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity
Max(argument List<Date>) Date
Max(argument List<DateTime>) DateTime
Max(argument List<Time>) Time
Max(argument List<String>) String

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The Max operator returns the maximum element in the source. Comparison semantics are defined by the Comparison Operators for the type of value being aggregated.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Max operator:

define "IntegerMax": Max({ 2, 4, 8, 6 }) // 8
define "LongMax": Max({ 2L, 4L, 8L, 6L }) // 8L
define "DateMax": Max({ @2012-12-31, @2013-01-01, @2012-01-01 }) // @2013-01-01
define "MaxIsNull": Max({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "MaxIsAlsoNull": Max(null as List<Decimal>)

11.7. Min

Signature:

Min(argument List<Integer>) Integer
Min(argument List<Long>) Long
Min(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Min(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity
Min(argument List<Date>) Date
Min(argument List<DateTime>) DateTime
Min(argument List<Time>) Time
Min(argument List<String>) String

Description:

The Min operator returns the minimum element in the source. Comparison semantics are defined by the Comparison Operators for the type of value being aggregated.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Min operator:

define "IntegerMin": Min({ 2, 4, 8, 6 }) // 2
define "LongMin": Min({ 2L, 4L, 8L, 6L }) // 2L
define "DateMin": Min({ @2012-12-31, @2013-01-01, @2012-01-01 }) // @2012-01-01
define "MinIsNull": Min({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "MinIsAlsoNull": Min(null as List<Decimal>)

11.8. Median

Signature:

Median(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Median(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The Median operator returns the median of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Median operator:

define "DecimalMedian": Median({ 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 6.0 }) // 5.0
define "QuantityMedian": Median({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg' }) // 2.0 'mg'
define "MedianIsNull": Median({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "MedianIsAlsoNull": Median(null as List<Decimal>)

11.9. Mode

Signature:

Mode(argument List<T>) T

Description:

The Mode operator returns the statistical mode of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Mode operator:

define "DecimalMode": Mode({ 2.0, 2.0, 8.0, 6.0, 8.0, 8.0 }) // 8.0
define "QuantityMode": Mode({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg' }) // 2.0 'mg'
define "ModeIsNull": Mode({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "ModeIsAlsoNull": Mode(null as List<Decimal>)

11.10. Population StdDev

Signature:

PopulationStdDev(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
PopulationStdDev(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The PopulationStdDev operator returns the statistical standard deviation of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the PopulationStdDev operator:

define "DecimalPopulationStdDev": PopulationStdDev({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 }) // 1.41421356
define "QuantityPopulationStdDev": PopulationStdDev({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg', 5.0 'mg' }) // 1.41421356 'mg'
define "PopulationStdDevIsNull": PopulationStdDev({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "PopulationStdDevIsAlsoNull": PopulationStdDev(null as List<Decimal>)

11.11. Population Variance

Signature:

PopulationVariance(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
PopulationVariance(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The PopulationVariance operator returns the statistical population variance of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the PopulationVariance operator:

define "DecimalPopulationVariance": PopulationVariance({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 }) // 2.0
define "QuantityPopulationVariance": PopulationVariance({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg', 5.0 'mg' }) // 2.0 'mg'
define "PopulationVarianceIsNull": PopulationVariance({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "PopulationVarianceIsAlsoNull": PopulationVariance(null as List<Decimal>)

11.12. Product

Signature:

Product(argument List<Integer>) Integer
Product(argument List<Long>) Long
Product(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Product(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The Product operator returns the geometric product of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Product operator:

define "DecimalProduct": Product({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 }) // 24.0
define "QuantityProduct": Product({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg' }) // 24.0 'mg'
define "ProductIsNull": Product({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "ProductIsAlsoNull": Product(null as List<Decimal>)

11.13. StdDev

Signature:

StdDev(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
StdDev(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The StdDev operator returns the statistical standard deviation of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the list is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the StdDev operator:

define "DecimalStdDev": StdDev({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 }) // 1.58113883
define "QuantityStdDev": StdDev({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg', 5.0 'mg' }) // 1.58113883 'mg'
define "StdDevIsNull": StdDev({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "StdDevIsAlsoNull": StdDev(null as List<Decimal>)

11.14. Sum

Signature:

Sum(argument List<Integer>) Integer
Sum(argument List<Long>) Long
Sum(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Sum(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

The Long type is a new feature being introduced in CQL 1.5, and has trial-use status.

Description:

The Sum operator returns the sum of non-null elements in the source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the list is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Sum operator:

define "DecimalSum": Sum({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 }) // 15.0
define "QuantitySum": Sum({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg', 5.0 'mg' }) // 15.0 'mg'
define "SumIsNull": Sum({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "SumIsAlsoNull": Sum(null as List<Decimal>)

11.15. Variance

Signature:

Variance(argument List<Decimal>) Decimal
Variance(argument List<Quantity>) Quantity

Description:

The Variance operator returns the statistical variance of the elements in source.

If the source contains no non-null elements, null is returned.

If the source is null, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Variance operator:

define "DecimalVariance": Variance({ 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 }) // 2.5
define "QuantityVariance": Variance({ 1.0 'mg', 2.0 'mg', 3.0 'mg', 4.0 'mg', 5.0 'mg' }) // 2.5 'mg'
define "VarianceIsNull": Variance({ null as Quantity, null as Quantity, null as Quantity })
define "VarianceIsAlsoNull": Variance(null as List<Decimal>)

12. Clinical Operators

12.1. Age

Signature:

AgeInYears() Integer
AgeInMonths() Integer
AgeInWeeks() Integer
AgeInDays() Integer
AgeInHours() Integer
AgeInMinutes() Integer
AgeInSeconds() Integer

Description:

The Age operators calculate the age of the patient as of the current date in the precision named in the operator.

If the patient’s birthdate is null, the result is null.

The Age operators are defined in terms of a date or time duration calculation. This means that if the age of the patient is not specified to the level of precision corresponding to the operator being invoked, the result will be an uncertainty over the range of possible values, potentially causing some comparisons to return null.

Note that for AgeInYears and AgeInMonths, the birthDate is specified as a Date and Today() is used to obtain the current date; whereas with the other precisions, birthDate is specified as a DateTime, and Now() is used to obtain the current DateTime.

These operators are shorthand for the equivalent AgeInXXXAt operator, passing Today() or Now() for the asOf argument.

12.2. AgeAt

Signature:

AgeInYearsAt(asOf Date) Integer
AgeInYearsAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInMonthsAt(asOf Date) Integer
AgeInMonthsAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInWeeksAt(asOf Date) Integer
AgeInWeeksAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInDaysAt(asOf Date) Integer
AgeInDaysAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInHoursAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInMinutesAt(asOf DateTime) Integer
AgeInSecondsAt(asOf DateTime) Integer

Description:

The AgeAt operators calculate the age of the patient as of a given date and in the precision named in the operator.

If the patient’s birthdate is null, or the asOf argument is null, the result is null.

The AgeAt operators are defined in terms of a datetime duration calculation. This means that if the age of the patient or the given asOf value are not specified to the level of precision corresponding to the operator being invoked, the will be an uncertainty over the range of possible values, potentially causing some comparisons to return null.

These operators are shorthand for the equivalent CalculateAgeInXXXAt operator, passing the birth date from the Patient context.

12.3. CalculateAge

Signature:

CalculateAgeInYears(birthDate Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInYears(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInMonths(birthDate Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInMonths(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInWeeks(birthDate Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInWeeks(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInDays(birthDate Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInDays(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInHours(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInMinutes(birthDate DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInSeconds(birthDate DateTime) Integer

Description:

The CalculateAge operators calculate the age of a person born on the given birth date, as of the current date, and in the precision named in the operator.

If the birthdate is null, the result is null.

The CalculateAge operators are defined in terms of a datetime duration calculation. This means that if the given birthDate is not specified to the level of precision corresponding to the operator being invoked, the result will be an uncertainty over the range of possible values, potentially causing some comparisons to return null.

These operators are shorthand for the equivalent CalculateAgeInXXXAt, passing the current date for the asOf argument.

12.4. CalculateAgeAt

Signature:

CalculateAgeInYearsAt(birthDate Date, asOf Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInYearsAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInMonthsAt(birthDate Date, asOf Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInMonthsAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInWeeksAt(birthDate Date, asOf Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInWeeksAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInDaysAt(birthDate Date, asOf Date) Integer
CalculateAgeInDaysAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInHoursAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInMinutesAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer
CalculateAgeInSecondsAt(birthDate DateTime, asOf DateTime) Integer

Description:

The CalculateAgeAt operators calculate the age of a person born on the given birth date as of the given date, and in the precision named in the operator.

If the birthDate is null or the asOf argument is null, the result is null.

The CalculateAgeAt operators are defined in terms of a datetime duration calculation. This means that if the given birthDate or asOf are not specified to the level of precision corresponding to the operator being invoked, the result will be an uncertainty over the range of possible values, potentially causing some comparisons to return null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the CalculateAgeAt operator:

define "CalculateAgeAt": CalculateAgeInYearsAt(@2000-01-01, @2015-01-01) // 15
define "CalculateAgeAtIsNull": CalculateAgeInYearsAt(@2000-01-01, null)

12.5. Equal

Signature:

=(left Code, right Code) Boolean
=(left Concept, right Concept) Boolean

Description:

The equal (=) operator for Codes and Concepts uses tuple equality semantics. This means that the operator will return true if and only if the values for each element by name are equal.

If either argument is null, or has different components specified, the result is null.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equal operator:

define "Code1": Code { system: 'http://loinc.org', code: '8480-6', version: '1.0', display: 'Systolic blood pressure' }
define "Concept1": Concept { codes: { Code1 }, display: 'Concepts' }
define "Concept2": Concept { codes: { Code1 }, display: 'More Concepts' }
define "EqualIsTrue": Code1 = Code1
define "EqualIsFalse": Concept1 = Concept2
define "EqualIsNull": Code1 = null

12.6. Equivalent

Signature:

~(left Code, right Code) Boolean
~(left Concept, right Concept) Boolean
~(left Code, right Concept) Boolean
~(left Concept, right Code) Boolean

Description:

The equivalent (~) operator for Code values returns true if the code and system elements are equivalent. The version and display elements are ignored for the purposes of determining Code equivalence.

For Concept values, equivalence is defined as a non-empty intersection of the codes in each Concept. The display element is ignored for the purposes of determining Concept equivalence.

Note that this operator will always return true or false, even if either or both of its arguments are null, or contain null components.

Note carefully that this notion of equivalence is not the same as the notion of equivalence used in terminology: “these codes represent the same concept.” CQL specifically avoids defining terminological equivalence. The notion of equivalence defined here is used to provide consistent and intuitive semantics when dealing with missing information when determining terminological membership.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the equivalent operator:

define "Code1": Code { system: 'http://loinc.org', code: '8480-6', display: 'Systolic blood pressure' }
define "Concept1": Concept { codes: { Code1 }, display: 'Concepts' }
define "Concept2": Concept { codes: { null }, display: 'More Concepts' }
define "EquivalentIsTrue": Code1 ~ Code1
define "EquivalentIsAlsoTrue": Concept2 ~ Concept2
define "EquivalentIsFalse": Concept1 ~ Concept2

Note: Because code declarations in CQL allow the value of the code to be any valid code from the code system, it is possible to define code declarations that use expressions if the code system supports it (post-coordinated expressions in SNOMED, for example). However, using such features of a code system would effectively require a terminology server in order to fully support the capability, and CQL is not prescriptive about such support, and artifacts that make use of these types of features for code equivalence should come with a warning about implementability.

12.7. In (Codesystem)

Signature:

in(code String, codesystem CodeSystemRef) Boolean
in(code Code, codesystem CodeSystemRef) Boolean
in(concept Concept, codesystem CodeSystemRef) Boolean
in(codes List<Code>, codeSystem CodeSystemRef) Boolean
in(List<string>, CodeSystem)
in(List<Concept>, CodeSystem)

Description:

The in (Codesystem) operators determine whether or not a given code, or any of a list of codes, is in a particular codesystem. Note that these operators can only be invoked by referencing a defined codesystem.

For the String overload, if the given code system contains a code with an equivalent code element, the result is true.

For the Code overload, if the given code system contains an equivalent code, the result is true.

For the Concept overload, if the given code system contains a code equivalent to any code in the given concept, the result is true.

For the List<Code> overload, if the given code system contains a code equivalent to any code in the given list, the result is true.

If the code argument is null, the result is false.

If the code system reference cannot be resolved, a run-time error is thrown.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the in (Codesystem) operator:

codesystem "SNOMED:2014": 'http://snomed.info/sct'
define "StringInCodesystem": '12345678' in "SNOMED:2014"
define "CodeInCodesystem": Code { system: "http://snomed.info/sct", code: '12345678' } in "SNOMED:2014"
define "NullStringInCodesystem": null as String in "SNOMED:2014" // false

Note carefully that the use of the string overloads for membership testing in code systems and value sets is potentially problematic and should be used with caution, if at all

12.8. In (Valueset)

Signature:

in(code String, valueset ValueSetRef) Boolean
in(code Code, valueset ValueSetRef) Boolean
in(concept Concept, valueset ValueSetRef) Boolean
in(codes List<Code>, valueset ValueSetRef) Boolean
in(List<string>, ValueSet)
in(List<Concept>, ValueSet)

Description:

The in (Valueset) operators determine whether or not a given code, or any of a list of codes, is in a particular valueset. Note that these operators can only be invoked by referencing a defined valueset.

For the String overload, if the given valueset contains a code with an equivalent code element, the result is true. Note that for this overload, because the code being tested cannot specify code system information, if the resolved value set contains codes from multiple code systems, a run-time error is thrown because the operation is ambiguous.

For the Code overload, if the given valueset contains an equivalent code, the result is true.

For the Concept overload, if the given valueset contains a code equivalent to any code in the given concept, the result is true.

For the List<Code> overload, if the given valueset contains a code equivalent to any code in the given list, the result is true.

If the code argument is null, the result is false.

If the value set reference cannot be resolved, a run-time error is thrown.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the in (Valueset) operator:

valueset "Acute Pharyngitis": 'http://acute.pharyngitis/valueset'
define "StringInValueset": '12345678' in "Acute Pharyngitis"
define "CodeInValueset": Code { system: 'http://snomed.info/sct', code: '12345678' } in "Acute Pharyngitis"
define "NullStringInValueset": null as String in "Acute Pharyngitis" // false

Note carefully that the use of the string overloads for membership testing in code systems and value sets is potentially problematic and should be used with caution, if at all

13. Errors and Messaging

13.1. Message

Signature:

Message(source T, condition Boolean, code String, severity String, message String) T

Description:

The Message operator provides a run-time mechanism for returning messages, warnings, traces, and errors to the calling environment.

The source operand can be of any type and the result of the operation is the input source; the operation performs no modifications to input. This allows the message operation to appear at any point in any expression of CQL.

The condition is used to determine whether the message is generated and returned to the calling environment. If condition is true, the message is generated. Otherwise, the operation only returns the results and performs no processing at all.

The code provides a coded representation of the error. Note that this is a token (like a string or integer), not a terminology Code.

The severity determines what level of processing should occur for the message that is generated:

  • Trace – The operation produces an informational message that is expected to be made available to a tracing mechanism such as a debug log in the calling environment. In addition, some representation of the contents of the source parameter should be made available to the tracing mechanism.

  • Message – The operation produces an informational message that is expected to be made available in some way to the calling environment.

  • Warning – The operation produces a warning message that is expected to be made conspicuously available to the calling environment, potentially to the end-user of the logic.

  • Error – The operation produces a run-time error and return the message to the calling environment. This is the only severity that stops evaluation. All other severities continue evaluation of the expression.

If no severity is supplied, a default severity of Message is assumed.

The message is the content of the actual message that is sent to the calling environment.

Note that for Trace severity, the implementation should output the contents of the source parameter as part of the trace message. Because the logic may be operating on patient information, the utmost care should be taken to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to avoid logging sensitive information. At a minimum, all PHI should be redacted from these trace messages.

The following examples illustrate the behavior of the Message operator:

parameter Numerator Integer default 1
parameter Denominator Integer default 0
define "ErrorMessage": Message('Divide by zero error!', Denominator = 0, 'Undefined', 'Error', 'The Denominator parameter is zero')